1 Introduction The term underground or shadow economy largely refers to activities in a country which involve the production of goods and services that are not covered in the official system. These activities are experienced in all economies across
This special issue of the Hungarian Educational Research Journal ( HERJ ) focuses on the phenomenon of private supplementary tutoring, which in academic circles is widely known as shadow education. The metaphor is used because much tutoring
A survey of Vergil’s uses of the word umbra and comparisons with its uses in other Roman poets reveals that Vergil was the first poet to deploy umbra, previously neutral or negative in connotation, with positive associations, and that he may have been the first to coin it as meaning ‘ghost’. Unlike many other poets, Vergil exploits the multivalent potential of umbra, requiring readers to interpret his usage. The fact that all of Vergil’s varied uses of umbra appear in the Culex suggests that it was written by an astute follower who was perceptive to the poet’s nuanced usage of the term.
Introduction During the first two decades of the 21st century, the reach and influence of shadow education became all the more profound across continents. Whether provided at the home of a Myanmar student, taught in a fully packed classroom of a
Introduction Bray and Lykins (2012) pointed out that education is widely seen as a core instrument to “win” in the competitive environment, and shadow education is especially about competition and creation of differentials. Although it has been
shed light on the influence of migration destinations on migrant parents' attitudes to education. The role of shadow education in the parents' educational involvement was highlighted as it was prominent in the data and new to the literature. I explored