1 Introduction The term underground or shadoweconomy largely refers to activities in a country which involve the production of goods and services that are not covered in the official system. These activities are experienced in all economies across
for Market or Clans for Plan: Social Networks in Hungary and Russia.
East European Politics and Societies
Enste, D. — Schneider, F. (1998): Increasing ShadowEconomies all over the World — Fiction or
The presented paper gives the analysis of migration patterns of CIS countries and their interrelations with migration policies of Russia from the time of dissolution of USSR. The migration processes for last 15 years in post Soviet space are developing in the connection with transformation of Russia Federation national and migration policy. Russia still is the main attractive country for CIS countries. The legal norms were introduced in Russia from 2001 to 2006 years (new Laws on citizenship, on foreign residents, on migrants registration and on regulation of labor migrants activities) converted many of internal and external migrants into irregular or semi-irregular. The restrictive migration policy of Russia pushed migrants mainly to ‘shadow’ economy. This restrictive migration policy has reduced migration flows from FSU countries to Russia and reoriented them toward the Western countries. Unfavorable demographic situation in Russia, the growth of competition for migrants cheap labor with Kazakhstan and Byelorussia and tremendous shortage of labor force lead Russian government to unprecedented steps — to introduce new migration policy of ‘open doors’ from 2007. This policy undoubtedly will influence migration flows from East Europe to the West. How the new liberalization in migration policy will influence the migration behavior in ‘near abroad?’ Does it affect migration inflows to Europe from the East? The paper gives the analysis of the first results of new migration policy in the context of migration processes on post-soviet space.
): Rejtett gazdaság: Be nem jelentett foglalkoztatás és jövedelemeltitkolás – kormányzati lépések és a gazdasági szereplők válaszai [Shadoweconomy. Undeclared employment and income hiding – governmental actions and responses of economic players]. Budapest
Raciborski , E. – Kürthy , G. ( 2010 ): Rejtett gazdaság – Készpénzigény [Shadoweconomy – Demand for cash] . In: Adózó munkaadók és adózó munkavállalók a korrupciómentes gazdaságban [Taxpaying employers and taxpaying employees in a corruption