In this article the author defines shadow education, as only the most important
examination subjects’ out-of-school, for-fee education activities belong here.
After this he introduces some of the theoretical debates and important research
tendencies, topics, methods and results of the first two decades of the field.
Then he offers a new approach to reach a better understanding of shadow
education and other educational phenomena, and two practical methods to reduce
the negative effects of shadow education: he argues for starting educational
behavior reseach, also for training so-called educational space specialist, and
to introduce a well-balanced educational voucher system.
origo of shadoweducationresearch to this day. It is difficult to reveal the exact reasons for this, but it may be because researchers of Japanese education recognized very early that there were two education systems functioning in the country in