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) The effect of atropine on pancreatic responses to intravenous CCK-8 and intraduodenal soybean extract in sheep. Japan J. Zootech. Sci. 57 , 1022–1028. Ushijima J. The effect of

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such as abortion, metritis, mastitis, stillbirth, and weak calves at birth in domestic ruminants, and it may also cause infertility in sheep and goats ( Marrie, 2007 ; Muskens et al., 2011 ; Agerholm, 2013 ). In Europe, Q fever is a well-known cause

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and Mallavia, 2000 ). The agent has a broad reservoir range including many domestic and wild mammals, but the main reservoirs are cattle, sheep and goats ( Maurin and Rault, 1999 ). Many seroepidemiological studies have been conducted in these three

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Introduction With the introduction of imaging techniques in food animal practice, it has now become possible to diagnose several abdominal focal lesions including cysts ( Hussein and Elrashidy, 2014 ). Abdominal cysts in sheep are mainly of

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: László Fésüs, Attila Zsolnai, István Anton, and László Sáfár

The first results of the Hungarian sheep prion protein (PrP) genotyping programme are discussed in this paper. To obtain initial genotype frequency data 10 commercial (Hungarian Merino, German Mutton Merino, Merino Landschaf, German Blackheaded, Suffolk, Texel, Ile de France, Charollais, Lacaune, British Milksheep) and 4 indigenous (Gyimes Racka, Hortobágy Racka, Tsigaja, Cikta) breeds were sampled in 2003 and 2004, and the PrP genotypes were determined by microsequencing analysis with capillary electrophoresis. In all commercial breeds, a higher number of sheep were genotyped in 2005 (3648) and in 2006 (3834) within the breeding programme to increase scrapie resistance, and the estimated frequency data were compared to the initial figures to evaluate the efficiency of selection. The new developments arising from the identification of the so-called ‘atypical’ scrapie cases are also discussed.

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regarding activity and structure. Others are synthesized in the mammary gland, such as epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, prolactin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone [ 7 ]. Sheep and goat milk contain particularly high-quality proteins and

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A study was conducted to obtain data on the effects of a fungal fibrolytic enzyme preparation (Rumino-zyme, with 250 FXU/g xylanase activities) from Thermomyces lanuginosus on some rumen fermentation parameters in sheep. Ruminal fluid samples were taken just before the morning feeding and then 2 h and 4 h after feeding. Xylanase activity, pH, concentration of ammonia and volatile fatty acids were measured. The enzyme supplementation did not affect the pH but increased the xylanase activity and the total VFA concentration of the rumen fluid. The molar proportion of acetate increased, propionate was not affected and butyrate decreased after enzyme administration. The concentration of ammonia also decreased after supplementation with the enzyme product. It can be concluded that the xylanase enzyme preparation from T. lanuginosus induced favourable changes in the major rumen fermentation parameters in sheep.

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Arterial vascularisation of the ovine pineal gland was investigated by latex injection preparations of the common carotid artery in 20 adult Akkaraman sheep brains under stereo light microscope. It was observed that the arterial supply comes exclusively from branches of the caudal cerebral artery. The pineal gland was found to contain a rich vascular network. This network also received a few branches from the caudal choroid rami.

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Amniotic fluid collected from ewes on various days of gestation was examined for the presence of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins. IGF-binding proteins with a molecular mass of 40–45 kDa appeared at day 41 of gestation. The level of these major IGF-binding proteins increased during pregnancy and reached a maximum at day 106. Smaller IGF-binding molecules with an approximate molecular mass of 35 kDa and 25 kDa appeared at day 90, also reaching a concentration peak at day 106. The mitogenic activity of sheep amniotic fluid after chromatography on Sephadex G-50 was separated into two peaks. The peak having lower molecular mass corresponded to an elution profile of 125I-IGF-I. The first peak, having higher molecular mass, was eluted immediately after the void volume of column. Electrophoresis and ligand blotting showed that proteins in the first peak had similar properties as IGF-binding proteins.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Dolores Cid, José Francisco Fernández-Garayzábal, Chris Pinto, Lucas Domínguez, and Ana Isabel Vela

Pasteurella multocida is responsible for economically important diseases in sheep and pigs. Antimicrobial susceptibility studies are essential for initiating rational and effective empirical therapy of P. multocida infections. In this study we investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents of 156 clinical isolates of P. multocida from sheep (n = 87) and pigs (n = 69) using the microdilution method. Both sheep and pig isolates exhibited low levels of resistance (≤ 15%) to ceftiofur, gentamicin, neomycin, spectinomycin, chlortetracycline, tulathromycin, florfenicol, danofloxacin, and enrofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, high resistance rates (> 15% up to 50%) to oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, and tiamulin, and very high resistance rates (> 50%) to tylosin tartrate, clindamycin, and sulphadimethoxine. However, sheep isolates exhibited significantly lower percentages of resistance and lower MIC90 values (P < 0.05) than pig isolates for most of the antimicrobials tested. In addition, sheep isolates exhibited also significantly lower phenotypic antimicrobial resistance diversity (8 resistotypes vs. 30 resistotypes). LAC-LIN-SUL-MAC was the resistotype most frequently detected in sheep (39.1%) and LIN-SUL-MAC in pig isolates (26.1%). The differences in susceptibility patterns could be influenced by the lower use of antimicrobials in the small ruminant industry compared with the pig farming industry.

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