Authors:K. Bharti, N. Pandey, D. Shankhdhar, P.C. Srivastava, and S.C. Shankhdhar
A two-year field experiment was conducted to study the effect of three zinc levels 0, 20 kg ZnSO4 ha−1 and 20 kg ZnSO4 ha−1 + foliar spray of 0.5% ZnSO4 solution on plant height, leaf area, shoot biomass, photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content in different wheat genotypes. Increasing zinc levels was found to be beneficial in improving growth and physiological aspects of genotypes. Soil application + foliar spray proved to be the best application in improving all the parameters. Zinc application brought about a maximum increment limit of 41.8% in plant height, 101.8% in leaf area, 86% in shoot biomass and 51.1% in photosynthetic rate irrespective of stages and year of study. A variation was found to occur among genotypes in showing responses towards zinc application and PBW 550 was found to be more responsive.
Authors:N. Jain, G.P. Singh, R. Yadav, R. Pandey, P. Ramya, M.B. Shine, V.C. Pandey, N. Rai, J. Jha, and K.V. Prabhu
Under limiting water resources, root system response of genotypes to soil-water conditions with enhanced shoot biomass holds the key for development of improved genotypes. Based on the hypothesis of root biomass contribution to higher yields under limiting conditions which might be attributed to the root system plasticity of genotypes, a set of thirty-four genotypes were evaluated under three moisture regimes in a pot experiment for root system traits. Total root dry matter had a positive association with total shoot dry matter (0.35). The identified genotypes showed greater yields and higher stress tolerance index (STI) in an independent field experiment. Root dry matter positively correlated with stress tolerance index on grain yields in both the years. The total variation was partitioned into principal components and GGE biplots were studied to identify the best performing genotypes under the three environments for root dry biomass and related traits. HD2932 appeared to be the winner genotype under different regimes. These results might be helpful in identifying donors for moisture stress tolerance that can be utilized in wheat breeding programmes for accelerated development of varieties with improved root systems.
Authors:Farzaneh Garousi, Béla Kovács, and Szilvia Veres
Selenium (Se) is an essential element for animals and humans, but not plants. However, the capacity of some plants to accumulate and transform Se into bioactive compounds has important implications for human nutrition and health. In this study, sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and maize (Zea mays) seedlings were cultivated in soil to investigate the effect of different rates of sodium selenite (1–90 mg kg–1 soil) and sodium selenate (1–30 mg kg–1 soil) on absorption and translocation of Se and sulphur (S). Sodium selenate decreased growth of sunflower roots at all applied rates and of maize roots at the highest rate applied. In contrast, sodium selenite up to 30 mg kg–1 for sunflower and 3 mg kg–1 for maize resulted in increased shoot and root growth. An increase in Se concentration in soil resulted in an increase in Se and a decrease in S accumulation in roots and shoots of both maize and sunflower. Selenium translocation from roots to shoot was higher in sunflower than maize. Root-to-shoot translocation of Se was 5 to 30 times greater in sunflower and 0.4 to 3 times greater in maize in the sodium selenate than sodium selenite treatments. Sunflower, as a Se-hyperaccumulator with up to 1.8 g kg–1 in shoots (with no significant decrease in shoot biomass) can be a valuable plant in biofortification to improve animal/human nutrition, as well as in phytoremediation of contaminated sites to restore ecosystem services.
Authors:Elisabetta Oddo, Gianni Russo, and Francesca Grisafi
deionized water and blotted dry, and root length was measured as root extension from the stem bases to the farthest extending root. After measuring shoot length, leaves and shoots were removed and weighed for the determination of total shootbiomass fresh