The siege of Nándorfehérvár/Belgrade, the key stronghold of the southern defence system of mediaeval Hungary, was not an “ordinary” battle between the Ottomans and Hungarians; rather, it was a decisive clash which essentially influenced the subsequent history of Europe and Islam. As such, it can be seen as a symbolic point of contact and impact of three “civilisations”: the Ottoman/Islamic, the Byzantine (which by then had been largely incorporated into the former) and the Latin common-wealths. The importance of the Ottoman threat notwithstanding, only the remains of the Latin
attempted to halt the conquerors’ intent of devouring the entire
. By their victory, the defenders rendered enormous service to the entire Latin world by allowing it to pursue its history by its own inner logic rather than by the logic of compulsions and threats such as those that governed Hungary.
This paper focuses on a group of ten ancient Greek authors who, even in a world where warfare was endemic, can be classified as expressly military writers. They deal with scenarios of either battle or siege, and they show differing blends of realism and fantasy in doing so. Nine of the ten, most recently Athenaeus Mechanicus, have received appropriate attention in modern scholarship; the tenth, Apollodorus of Damascus, is in need of closer (and more sceptical) study. Plans for providing this are here outlined, and reflections are offered on the “genre” as a whole.
paciﬁcation In fact, Dembołęcki has very little to say about the Siege of Vienna, since he did not accompany the regiment at the end of 1619; therefore, only a few chapters concern the autumn battle and some subsequent events that happened immediately after
Authors:M. Siegers, K. Kasperek, H. Heiniger and L. Feinendegen
In eight organ systems of five different inbred strains of mice the concentrations of rubidium, zinc and iron were investigated.
In the case of rubidium two of the inbred strains showed relatively low concentrations in all organ systems, whereas zinc
and iron exhibited a rather irregular distribution within the eight organ systems. The differences in concentrations found
in the various organs of the five inbred strains—especially the distribution pattern of rubidium—may allow further genetic
experiments and thus help to elucidate the physiology and pathology of trace elements.
Commentary on Thucydides. Volume I: Books I–III . Oxford 1991.
Partial problems of the description, which is sometimes hard to follow, have already raised the interest of scholars: cf. Abbott, E. : The Siege of Plataea
The following study starts out from the examination of two fragmentary piano compositions by Liszt:
Introduction des variations sur une marche du Siège de Corinthe
, which were based on two Rossini operas,
Le Siège de Corinthe
, respectively. Since the literature has tended to confound the sources related to these two works, I strive to clarify and reinterpret the intricate connections between the two fragments and their different manuscript sources. I propose that the “Maometto — Mosè Fantasy,” the
Valse à capriccio sur deux motifs de Lucia et Parisina
Variations de bravoure pour piano sur des thèmes de Paganini
Fantasie über Motive aus Figaro und Don Juan
God Save the Queen. Paraphrase de concert
all reflect the composer’s intense concern with the integration of themes of different origins in a single work — an aesthetic problem that haunted him for decades, and remained unresolved in most of the above cases. Liszt appears to have been able to solve this problem satisfactorily only if he could rely on some kind of “outside” musical help, like the common genre of the waltz in the
Valse à capriccio
; or if he succeeded in “sublimating” one of the themes, as in the case of
God Save the Queen
. For want of such extraordinary solutions, all other compositions that experimented with the integration of themes of different origins in the late 1830s and early 1840s were eventually buried in oblivion by Liszt himself.