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Hegyi, Z., Zsubori, Z., Rácz, F. (2009): Comparative analysis of leafy and non-leafy silage maize hybrids. Acta Agron. Hung. , 57 , 277–284. Rácz F. Comparative analysis of

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Acta Agronomica Hungarica
Authors: Z. Hegyi, Z. Zsubori-Tóth, J. Pintér, and C. Marton

Hegyi, Z., Tóthné Zsubori, Z., Rácz, F., Halmos, G. (2009): Comparative analysis of silage maize hybrids based on agronomic traits and chemical quality. MAYDICA , 54 , 133–137. Halmos G

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Twelve silage hybrids were included in field experiments in Martonvásár in 2007 and 2008 to compare the agronomic traits and chemical quality traits of leafy and non-leafy hybrids. The climatic data for the two experimental years differed considerably. The results reflected the differences in weather conditions. Thanks to the plentiful rainfall in 2008 the hybrids reached their genetically determined height (274.32 cm on average), while in 2007 the average height was only 238.03 cm. In both years a leafy hybrid was the tallest, while the shortest plants were non-leafy. The assimilation leaf area above the main ear was greatest for the five leafy hybrids in both years, with values of 0.35–0.45 m 2 per plant for conventional hybrids and 0.53–0.84 m 2 per plant for leafy hybrids, averaged over the two years. The larger leaf area in leafy hybrids could be attributed both to the larger number of leaves and to the fact that they were broader. The greatest ear mass per plant was produced by Mv Massil (198.66; 320.00 g), a leafy hybrid which also had the greatest leaf area above the main ear. In addition to large green mass (leaf, stalk), an ideal silage maize hybrid should also have satisfactory grain yield. Several of the leafy and non-leafy hybrids in the experiment gave favourable results. In the present experiment the highest starch content was recorded for a leafy hybrid, while the highest protein and oil contents were characteristic of early maturing, non-leafy hybrids. Nevertheless, three of the leafy hybrids had above-average protein content.

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. – Zsubori, Zs. – Rácz, F. : 2009 . Comparative analysis of leafy and non-leafy silage maize hybrids . Acta Agronomica Hungarica. 57 . 3 : 277 – 284 . 10. Józsa L

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The aboveground parts, grain yield, dry matter and water content of the silage maize varieties Bermasil (early) and Mv MSC 485 (mid-season) and the grain maize varieties Mv To 286 (early) and NKPX 9283 (mid-season) were analysed to determine how these traits should be modified to develop a variety type more suitable for the production of bioenergy, more particularly biogas.It was established that silage maize types are generally taller, with larger tassels, leaves, cobs and stalk mass below the ear, making them suitable for biogas production. It is important to note, however, that the grain yield of these varieties should not be ignored, as it makes up 40–50% of the total aboveground dry matter yield.As one of the earliest maturing varieties, the silage maize variety Bermasil could be suitable in itself for biogas production. Based on the present and earlier data, it can be concluded that varieties with later maturity dates than those generally used for silage production could also be suitable for biogas production, provided they reliably reach the “half milk line” stage of maturity and a grain moisture content of around 42% every year in the given environment.

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The research, carried out in the Martonvásár phytotron in 2007, was aimed at determining how the leaf water potential of maize hybrids produced in direct and reciprocal crosses, and thus possessing different levels of seed vigour, changed as the result of water withholding in the flowering phenophase. In the case of the silage maize hybrids Mv 290 and Lima it was found that seedling vigour influenced the plant height (measured at 30 days) of adult plants. Crosses produced on chilling-sensitive female genotypes (GL, AM, H29), such as the hybrids Káma, Maraton and Hunor, proved to be unambiguously stress-sensitive if water was withheld for more than six days. In all cases drought stress reduced the relative quantum efficiency, irrespective of the crossing combination.

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The effect of spraying maize weekly with a 0.5 M concentration of Cd was studied in Hungary at two water supply levels. Cd reduced the size of the leaf area and the annual water loss. The intensity of evapotranspiration (mm water/unit leaf area) of the polluted crops grew. The higher net radiation of polluted maize resulted in an increase in sensible heat and a warmer canopy. The warmer the canopy, the higher the stress level of the contaminated crops was. While Cd caused a 28% significant decline in plant dry matter production in the rainfed plots, only a declining tendency amounting to a few percent was recorded in the ET treatment.Cd of atmospheric origin was only detected in the leaves; it was not accumulated in the grain. It was concluded from the results that the yield losses in grain maize grown on Cd-polluted areas could be mitigated by irrigation. The production of silage maize, however, is not recommended in regions affected by Cd pollution, especially in areas where irrigation is required, since supplementary water supplies promote the accumulation of Cd in the vegetative organs.

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minősitésének rendszere . (System for the testing and registration of grain and silage maize varieties.) OMMI, Budapest. 13 p. Neduczáné Krékity M. Szemes

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Összefoglalás

Tizenkét silókukorica hibridet vizsgáltunk szántóföldi kísérletben Martonvásáron, 2007–2008. évek folyamán. A kísérletben leafy (leveles) és nem-leafy silókukorica hibridek agronómiai tulajdonságait, a szemtermés minőségi paramétereit, valamint a biogáz kihozatalt hasonlítottuk össze. A vizsgált évek időjárása különbözött egymástól, az évjárat hatása jelentősen befolyásolta a kapott eredményeket. A 2008-ban lehullott nagy mennyiségű csapadéknak köszönhetően a hibridek elérték a genetikailag determinált magasságukat (átlagosan 274 cm), miközben a 2007-es aszályos esztendőben az átlagos magasságuk csupán 238 cm volt. Mindkét évben a leafy hibridek nagyobbra nőttek, mint a nem-leafy, hagyományos nemesítésű silókukorica hibridek. A főcső fölötti legnagyobb asszimilációs levélterületet mindkét évben a kísérletben szereplő öt leafy hibrid érte el. Két év átlagában ez az érték a leafy hibrideknél 0,53–0,84 m2, a nem-leafy hibrideknél 0,35–0,45 m2 közötti intervallumban változott. A leafy hibridek nagyobb levélterületét a főcső fölötti nagyobb levélszám és a szélesebb levelek eredményezték. Az ideális silókukorica hibridek a nagy zöldtömeg mellett (szár, levél) kielégítő mennyiségű szemtermést is produkálnak. A kísérletben szereplő néhány leafy és nem-leafy hibrid ebből a szempontból is kiemelkedő eredményt produkált. A legnagyobb egyedi csőtömeg produkciót egy leafy hibrid (Mv Massil) érte el mindkét évben (198; 320 g), ennél a hibridnél mértük a legnagyobb főcső fölötti levélterületet a vizsgált években. A legnagyobb keményítő tartalmakat leafy hibridek mintáiban mértük, miközben a legnagyobb fehérje- és olajtartalom a nem-leafy hibrideket jellemezte, elsősorban a korai érésűeket. Mind a hagyományos, mind a leafy silókukorica hibridekből elvégeztettük a biogáz kihozatali vizsgálatot. Az eredmények azt mutatták, hogy 1 kg szárazanyagra vetítve az Mv Limasil (494 l/kg) és az Mv Dunasil (490 l/kg) leafy hibridekből képződött a legtöbb gáz.

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crops and weeds on silage maize yield. Rost. Vyroba, 48.8. 361–367. Jamriska P. The effect of undersowing time of clover crops and weeds on silage maize yield

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