Baker’s idea to make use of various corpus linguistics methods in translation studies (1993, 1995, 1996) was quickly taken up by other scholars and the approach has on many occasions been applied in the investigations of translation universals. Simplification is one of the most frequently tested hypotheses in this context. In her seminal corpusbased study of simplification, Laviosa (1998) proved that the range of vocabulary used in translations is narrower, which is indicated by lower lexical density, greater percentage of high frequency words and by the fact that the list head of a corpus of translated texts accounts for a larger area of the corpus. The present study will employ Laviosa’s (1998) methodology to examine whether the language of simultaneous interpretation from German, Dutch, French and Spanish into English displays traces of simplification when compared to speeches originally delivered in English and whether the same patterns are observed in English translations of the same speeches.
Brincat , J.
2014 . Morphological and Semantic Simplification in Dubbing Techniques. Translating the Dialogue of the British Films . In: Pavesi , M. , Formentelli , M. & Ghia , E. (eds) Ae Fond Kiss and The Queen . 197
: Investigating Language Structure and Use . Cambridge University Press . Blum-Kulka , S . & Levenston , E. A . 1983 . Universals of Lexical Simplification . In: Faerch , C ., Kasper , G . (eds.) Strategies in Interlanguage Communication . London and
The results obtained from our present work for the stoichiometric propane/air mixture will be discussed on the basis of a simple model, implying a multiplication of the surface active intermediates. The model is based on several simplifying hypotheses
, Dobszay G.
A proposed methodology for the improvement of the simplified calculation of thermal bridges for well typified facades, Periodica Polytechnica , Civil Engineering , Vol. 58 , No. 4
, explicitation, resulting in a higher level of explicitness in translated texts relative to source texts, is a potential S-universal, whereas simplification of translated texts relative to non-translations is a potential T-universal. Given that translation
Testing cereal frost tolerance goes back for decades in the Agricultural Research Institute, Martonvásár, Hungary. The climatic programmes used in the plant growth chamber have proved to be fairly efficient, but these methods are time-consuming and have become quite expensive in recent years. An attempt was made to shorten this process by reducing the cold hardening phase, and the freezing test has been simplified and shortened by measuring the relative conductance of leaf segments frozen in a liquid freezer. Frost-tolerant and sensitive wheat lines were tested, and the sensitivity of the system was checked by testing single chromosome substitution lines. Differences were found for all lines frozen at different temperatures. To reduce the costs of the experiment it was attempted to cold-harden the plants not only in a growth chamber but also in a cold room under very low light intensity and it was found that even under thess unfavourable conditions the plants developed a certain level of frost tolerance. The simplified frost tolerance test has proved to be effective, but requires further improvement due to the unsatisfactory significance levels.
Witecki A. A. Simplified method for the analysis of torsional moment as an effect of horizontally curved multispan continuous bridge,
First Int. Symp. on Concrete Bridge Design, ACI spl. Pub
. SP-23, 1969, pp. 193
To provide a convenient and facile method to evaluate the radiochemical purity (RCP) of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 in quality control of routine clinical application, a simplified method of single-strip thin layer chromatography
(TLC) was developed and validated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The RCP data of TLC correlated well with
We discribe the development of a simplified radioimmunoassay for triiodothyronine (T3) using pre-incubated labelled T3 and antibody. The assay is carried out by adding 50 l of standard or sample to 0.4 ml of pre-incubated reagent dispensed in assay tubes. The reaction is allowed to proceed for about four hours and the antigen-antibody complex precipitated by the addition of 1 cm3 of 22% polyethylene glycol solution. Due to the high dissociation constant of T3-antibody complex at 37° C (2.83·10–4 S–1), the labelled antigen-antibody complex dissociates and thereby the unlabelled antigen binds with the antibody. With a four hour incubation the sensitivity of this assay is comparable to an assay done by the equilibrium method using the same antibody. Sixty serum samples were analyzed using this method and compared with the equilibrium assay (Y=0.94x+0.046 ng/cm3, r=0.98).