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problem” (Levelt 1989:50). In simultaneous interpreting, the effects of SPs in source text become even more nuanced and complicated for interpreters, who are not pure listeners of speech with pauses but linguistic decoders between two languages struggling

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Simultaneous interpreting (SI) is a cognitively demanding task. This is why there are typically two interpreters working in a booth and taking turns every 30 minutes or so. Interpreters work in pairs not only to be able to overcome fatigue, but also to cooperate and help each other. This article is an attempt to shed some light on the process of booth teamwork. Cooperation in the booth is examined in the professional context, which leads to conclusions regarding the incorporation of this skill in conference interpreter training.A survey was conducted among 200 free-lance interpreters associated in AIIC and working on various markets to find out more about their expectations and needs as regards assistance from their booth partners. The respondents were asked about their mode of operation, activities in the booth when off-mike and their perception of the need to teach cooperation to interpretation trainees. It turns out that there are some factors that may impede teamwork in the simultaneous interpreting booth. Interpreters who are off-mike can engage in last-minute preparation using materials supplied by the organizers shortly before the commencement of a conference. Additionally, fatigue may prevent them from actively listening to the input and assisting their boothmate. The results of the survey may help answer the question if teamwork and turn-taking should be part of simultaneous interpreting courses.

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) doctoral dissertation on simultaneous interpreting between Finnish and Russian. The results of Rouhe’s study show that “an attempt at linearly identical or literal translation” in the case of asymmetries (either syntactic, such as genitive constructions, or

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The present paper focuses on the phenomenon of explicitation in simultaneous interpreting. In an attempt to provide an answer to one of the most contentious issues in the translation & interpreting studies community, this study aims at investigating the causes triggering shifts leading to greater explicitness of the target texts. The scope of the analysed explicitating shifts encompasses all linguistic strata, ranging from syntax and lexis to pragmatics. The analysis of both product and process data (retrospective comments) indicates that the vast majority of explicitating shifts in simultaneous interpreting are not attributable to the interpreters' conscious strategic behaviour.

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This paper presents the preliminary results of an empirical study aimed at exploring the effect of previous preparation in the performance of simultaneous interpreting of specialised speeches, carried out with advanced undergraduate interpreting students. Simultaneous interpretation may be the most frequent modality of interpretation used in multilingual specialised and technical conferences, including international scientific conferences. The linguistic and extra-linguistic characteristics of specialised speeches impose additional demands on comprehension processing. Previous preparation is here understood as an instance of acquisition of prior topic knowledge, which has been observed to support the comprehension of scientific discourse. A within-subject design was used to test the effect of an instance of previous preparation on neutral and difficult segments of a scientific speech. Ear-voice-span (EVS), translation accuracy and percentage of omissions were measured as dependent variables on which previous preparation had a significant effect.

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The aim of this study is to gauge the opinion of potential users of simultaneous interpretation (SI) services as to the impact of first impressions (FI) on their assessment of the quality of SI, and the grounds on which these impressions are based. The investigation had two parts. The first part aims at testing if the opinions formed by users about an interpreter during the first listen affect their final assessment of his/her work and if there are a number of specific criteria which to a greater or lesser extent help to form these opinions. The second part focuses on making a vertical analysis of FI by assessing the relative importance that the users give a priori to the different aspects that help to form these impressions within the field of interpreting. A high proportion of the sample population acknowledged that they had formed a first impression of the interpreters they had listened to and accepted that it had influenced their assessment. They also stated that nonverbal aspects were responsible for these impressions. The vertical analysis has shown that in different situations users adopt different approaches when assessing the relative importance of a range of criteria in impression formation processes.

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Abstract

Simultaneous interpreting is a cognitively demanding task, based on performing several activities concurrently (Gile 1995; Seeber 2011). While multitasking itself is challenging, there are numerous tasks which make interpreting even more difficult, such as rendering of numbers and proper names, or dealing with a speaker's strong accent (Gile 2009). Among these, number interpreting is cognitively taxing since numerical data cannot be derived from the context and it needs to be rendered in a word-to-word manner (Mazza 2001). In our study, we aimed to examine cognitive load involved in number interpreting and to verify whether access to visual materials in the form of slides increases number interpreting accuracy in simultaneous interpreting performed by professional interpreters (N = 26) and interpreting trainees (N = 22). We used a remote EyeLink 1000+ eye-tracker to measure fixation count, mean fixation duration, and gaze time. The participants interpreted two short speeches from English into Polish, both containing 10 numerals. Slides were provided for one of the presentations. Our results show that novices are characterised by longer fixations and they provide a less accurate interpretation than professional interpreters. In addition, access to slides increases number interpreting accuracy. The results obtained might be a valuable contribution to studies on visual processing in simultaneous interpreting, number interpreting as a competence, as well as interpreter training.

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1 Introduction Simultaneous interpreting is a cognitively challenging task, as interpreters' processing capacity is usually consumed by several efforts at the same time ( Gile, 2007 ). To alleviate fatigue, interpreters often work in teams of at

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This paper discusses the use of game theory in thinking about and the practice of interpreting, especially in the often impossible context of simultaneous interpreting (SI). By introducing game theory together with the basic concepts and accompanying reasoning, the author intends to explore and present a manageable and rationalised way of preparing and undertaking a difficult SI assignment. So, in the development of his ideas, partly through telling a Chinese legend and partly through presenting a case study of a real life SI assignment, he will make the following points. First, the interpreter must have a good knowledge of his/her own strengths and of the nature and difficulty of assignment and must undertake research to enhance that knowledge. Secondly, on the basis of this knowledge, he/she must set an optimal and realistic objective for the assignment. Thirdly, through research, he/she must design strategies to achieve the selected objectives and, at the same time, through research, he/she must assess the costs and risks and then design specific strategies to contain/reduce the costs and manage/minimize the risks in order to optimise the results of the assignment. Last but not least, he/she must evaluate the game plan designed for the job to facilitate future game planning. In the spirit of game theory, SI becomes a very brainy, intellectual activity and is no longer a process of mechanic reproduction, pedantic compilation of glossary and an unmanageable chancy behaviour.

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