Smartphones are becoming increasingly indispensable in everyday life and offer a substantial variety of mobile applications for information, communication, education, and entertainment purposes. Smartphones
Smartphones enable ready access to the Internet and have a wide range of functions. In addition to making phone calls, users are able to play games, gamble, chat with friends, use messenger systems, access web
, household Internet access rose from 55% in 2007 to 85% in 2015, and Internet access through a mobile device also increased from 36% in 2012 to 59% in 2016 ( Eurostat, 2017 ). Personal computers and smartphones have also become popular among children and
, 2016 ). In 2019, GD was passed as an official disease included in the ICD-11 ( WHO, 2019 ). Preliminary data showed that addiction to the Internet, games, and smartphones is a serious social phenomenon, which requires clinical attention; however, the
Smartphones allow users to access social networking sites (SNSs) whenever and wherever they want. Such easy availability and accessibility may increase their vulnerability to addiction. Based on the social cognitive theory (SCT), we examined the impacts of outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and impulsivity on young Chinese smartphone users’ addictive tendencies toward SNSs.
Two hundred seventy-seven Macau young smartphone users (116 males and 161 females; mean age = 26.62) filled out an online Chinese questionnaire concerning their usage of social networking sites via smartphones, addiction tendencies toward SNSs, impulsivity trait, outcome expectancies toward the use, and Internet self-efficacy.
The findings revealed that those who spent more time on SNSs also reported higher addictive tendencies. Addictive tendencies were positively correlated with both outcome expectancies and impulsivity, but negatively associated with Internet self-efficacy. These three psychological variables explained 23% of the variance in addictive tendencies.
The findings of this study suggest that, compared to demographics, psychological factors provide a better account for addictive tendencies towards SNSs among Chinese smartphone users in Macau. The three psychological risk factors were low Internet self-efficacy, favorable outcome expectancies, and high impulsivity trait. Educational campaigns with screening procedures for high-risk groups are recommended for effective prevention and treatment.
Most recent statistics show that in Japan, 37.2% of 2-year-old and nearly 50% of 3–5-year-old children were using Internet-equipped devices, including smartphones, tablets, and game consoles ( Cabinet office
social networks using cell phone, number of years of membership in social networks, and number of registered social networks. Entry criteria included being a second-year student or above, using smartphone and social networking applications, being an
The recent development of the multifunctional smartphone and its subsequent global popularity has changed the communication and information landscape; remolded the interests, values, and desires of many users; and