Authors:Marc Mehu, Anthony C. Little, and Robin I. M. Dunbar
Although Duchenne smiles have been shown to have a social signal value, there is limited evidence as to whether this effect generalises to most positive attributes, or whether it is restricted to a particular social domain. As opposed to non-Duchenne smiles, Duchenne smiles involve the activity of facial muscles in the eye region (orbicularis oculi). The hypothesis that Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles produce different responses in receivers was tested in a face perception experiment. People were asked to rate neutral and smiling faces on ten attributes: attractiveness, generosity, trustworthiness, competitiveness, health, agreeableness, conscientiousness, extroversion, neuroticism, and openness to experience. Results showed that the type of smile had a stronger impact on the ratings of generosity and extroversion. The difference between neutral and smiling was larger when faces showed a Duchenne than a non-Duchenne smile, though the effect of smile type on attributions of generosity appeared to be restricted to male faces. Therefore the Duchenne marker shows some specificity to judgements of altruism and sociability.
The third Earl of Shaftesbury accorded a political mission to the arts capable of evoking rational moral visions in an enlightened public that have learnt to trust their natural moral sense and sociability. His rational, neo-classicist art theory contains a program for the education of taste leading to the experience of the plastic truth of artworks and to aesthetic pleasure in their natural simplicity. The family portrait paintings and the engraved emblematic frontispieces to Characteristicks,commissioned by Shaftesbury, relied on a particular form of cooperation between patron and artist. The nine engravings present a visual argument for the freedom of thought, the last of which is shown to refer to Locke's unpublished Defence of Nonconformity. The reconstruction of Shaftesbury's ‘virtuoso’ knowledge and classicist art theory is set against Karl Mannheim's sociological theory of connoisseurship.
Previous work on Shakespearian plays has shown that the structure of these dramas reflects the levels of grouping found in a variety of human societies. In this paper, we use data from soap operas to investigate whether this form of narrative drama also displays evidence of this form of social structuring. Data from ten weekly serials were analysed and revealed that mean scene size (number of speaking characters per scene) was similar to that previously found for Shakespearian plays, and also similar to the mean size of naturally forming conversational groups. This group size is usually identified as corresponding to individual “support cliques” in the literature. The number of recurring characters appearing per episode and per week of episodes was also similar to that found for Shakespeare's plays and corresponded to the size of human “sympathy groups”. A questionnaire study administered to 30 respondents revealed that individuals maintained an average of 85.8 “para-social” television-based relationships. However, since they also apparently had real social networks of conventional size, the data do not suggest that individuals who are avid followers of TV soaps necessarily do so because they are less sociable than those who do not.
Two separate studies were undertaken of the personality characteristics associated with research creativity and teaching effectiveness in university psychology professors. In the first study, 52 professors at The University of Western Ontario were evaluated on 29 trait dimensions using four assessment techniques: faculty peer ratings, student ratings, self ratings, and objective questionnaires. A composite criterion of research creativity was generated from publication and citation counts. A composite for teaching effectiveness was created from 5 years of archival data based on formal student evaluations. The personality measures demonstrated considerable convergence across modes of assessment for many traits. In turn, several traits differentiated between most and least creative researchers and most and least effective teachers. A second study, using a self report survey sent to 400 professors in graduate psychology departments at 9 Canadian universities, revealed substantial replications of the findings of Study 1. Limiting ourselves to those personality traits that reliably loaded on Research and Teaching factors in both studies, we may describe the creative researcher as ambitious, enduring, seeking definiteness, dominant, showing leadership, aggressive, independent, non-meek, and non-supportive. The effective teacher is best described as liberal, sociable, showing leadership, extraverted, nonanxious, objective, supporting, non-authoritarian, non-defensive, intelligent, and aesthetically sensitive.
Authors:Damien C. Hull, Glenn A. Williams, and Mark D. Griffiths
Video games provide opportunities for positive psychological experiences such as flow-like phenomena during play and general happiness that could be associated with gaming achievements. However, research has shown that specific features of game play may be associated with problematic behaviour associated with addiction-like experiences. The study was aimed at analysing whether certain structural characteristics of video games, flow, and global happiness could be predictive of video game addiction.
A total of 110 video game players were surveyed about a game they had recently played by using a 24-item checklist of structural characteristics, an adapted Flow State Scale, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, and the Game Addiction Scale.
The study revealed decreases in general happiness had the strongest role in predicting increases in gaming addiction. One of the nine factors of the flow experience was a significant predictor of gaming addiction — perceptions of time being altered during play. The structural characteristic that significantly predicted addiction was its social element with increased sociability being associated with higher levels of addictive-like experiences. Overall, the structural characteristics of video games, elements of the flow experience, and general happiness accounted for 49.2% of the total variance in Game Addiction Scale levels.
Implications for interventions are discussed, particularly with regard to making players more aware of time passing and in capitalising on benefits of social features of video game play to guard against addictive-like tendencies among video game players.
The article offers a definition of the concept of anti-modernity, based at first on Antoine Compagnon’s 2005-volume Les antimodernes, de Joseph de Maistre à Roland Barthes. The role of the mundane sociability of the aristocracy, returned from emigration, and of the aesthetic culture of political legitimism is examined in the acclimatization process of German Romanticism in France during the Empire, the Restoration, and the first years of the July Monarchy. A hypothesis is proposed about the connections between Liszt’s interpretation of the Faust myth as it is exposed in the poems of Goethe and Lenau, on the one hand, and the political, aesthetical, and ideological resistance of French artists from the first half of the 19th century, directed against modernity, liberal individualism, the upheavals of the 1789 Revolution, and the rationalist constructivism of the Enlightenment, on the other. A survey of the aesthetics of negativity and its musical implications in Liszt’s compositions inspired by Faust reveals that the composer distanced himself from the “naive modernism” (Compagnon) of many of his contemporaries and came close to the flamboyant aesthetic of Chateaubriand’s Christian Vanity as well as to the scepticism, related in our post-modernist era with the idea of progress and of the completed work. Thus, Liszt’s relationship to the myth and the character of Faust becomes much more complex and ambiguous than it usually appears in the French literature, where Liszt’s view on the Faustian freedom is associated systematically and rather simplistically with the modern and liberal process of the individual’s emancipation.