The aim of this article is to cast a light on the nature of the mysteries of Mithras in central Italy, focusing on the administrative division of Roman Etruria. The Regio VII in fact, despite not being the richest Italian area in terms of Mithraic findings, has nevertheless emerged as a privileged territory to observe different aspects of the cult, due to the great variety of its artefacts.
Hence, starting from the material evidence and from its distribution across the region, the social classes that took part in the worship of Mithras are identified. Consequently, the active role played by public officials in promoting the spread of the mysteries is discussed, as well as the cult diffusion among the lower classes, and the interest demonstrated by the aristocratic elites from the Middle/Late Empire.
The conclusion will examine the last phases of the cult in Etruria, showing how the Mithraic mysteries ended following diverse modalities during the first decades of the 5th century AD, sometimes because of violent acts of destruction, and sometimes in a peaceful manner.
Ritterman, M. L.–Fernald, L. C.–Ozer, E. J.–Adler, N. E.–Gutierrez, J. P.–Syme, S. L. (2009): Objective and subjective socialclass gradients for substance use among Mexican adolescents.
Social Science & Medicine
. 68, 1843
Luhmann, Niklas (1989): Kapital und Arbeit. Probleme einer Unterscheidung. In: Niklas Luhmann: Die Wirtschaft der Gesellschaft. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main, 151–176.
Marshall, T. H. (1992): Citizenship and SocialClass. In: T
Jokes about stupidity are extremely common in most countries, as ethnic, national, regional and locality jokes, political jokes, jokes about occupations and social classes, and blonde and Essex-girl jokes. The aim of this paper is to provide a theory that will explain why such diverse groups of people should be the butts of what is essentially the same joke. It will also explain jokes that are the opposite of the stupidity jokes, the widespread jokes about the canny (clever, crafty, calculating, stingy), whether jokes about ethnic groups, regional groups, townspeople or occupations. The key explanatory variables are first, the dominance of centre over periphery whether defined in geographical, cultural, language or social class terms and second, among the powerful, the contrast between those who hold arbitrary monopoly power based on control of the state and the means of force and those who have achieved their position through legitimate competition.
Kanazawa (2004) suggests that there is a negative association between social class and reproduction because lower-class individuals, who tend to have lower general intelligence, have greater difficulty employing evolutionarily-novel modern contraception. I derive three hypotheses from Kanazawa's theory: 1) There are no class differences in the numAber of desired children; 2) The effect of sexual activity on reproduction is weaker among the more intelligent; and 3) The interaction between sexual activity and intelligence is stronger among men. The analyses of the U.S. General Social Surveys support all three hypotheses.
The land-law of Solon can be divided into two parts: on the one hand it
is a seisachtheia (the shaking off of burdens), which is the extracting
of border-stones in the “serving land” (and has nothing to do with
indebtedness), and on theother hand it is
therepurchase of citizens who had been unlawfully sold abroad. The
legal status of the social class called hektemoroi was similar to that
of the helots in Sparta and the penestai in Thessaly. The hektemoroi
were liberated by the reform of Solon, thus they become thetes, i.e.
lawful citizens. This measure was taken much rather in favour of the big
landowners than of the hektemoroi. The latter could not get their former
lands, since the lands were usually taken by aristocrats to grow exportable
olive and grapevine. (It wasonly the export
of cornthat was forbidden by Solon.) Raising the thetes to the rank of
citizens became the most important element of the Athenian development. (At
this point the economicmodels of Athens,
Sparta, Thessaly and Crete diverge.) The social class of the thetes
gave Athens not only a supply for agricultural labour but also the masses of
craftsmen and shipmen, who served the city even as oarsmen while it was
becoming a great power…
A klímaváltozás összetett jelenségének sajátossága, hogy az emberi jogokra gyakorolt negatív (és esetenként pozitív) hatásai térben és időben egyenlőtlenül oszlanak el, ráadásul többnyire kiszámíthatatlanok és esetlegesek. A klímaváltozás nem egyformán érint minden ökoszisztémát, és az ezekre épülő emberi társadalmak sebezhetősége is meglehetősen különböző. Így a környezeti változások különbözőképpen hatnak a mezőgazdaságból élőkre vagy a városokban élőkre; a szegénységgel küzdő embereket nagyobb mértékben sújtják, mint a biztosítással és az alkalmazkodáshoz szükséges pénzeszközökkel rendelkező gazdagabb embereket. A klímaváltozás jövőbeli hatásai (ezek jellege és mértéke) attól is függnek, hogy a gazdasági-társadalmi fejlődés milyen irányban halad, milyen gyorsan és milyen határozott intézkedések születnek az üvegházhatású gázok kibocsátásának csökkentésére.
The paper offers a digression into the issue of a specific group of children in the Early Middle Ages – the children of the elite in the northern region of the Carpathian Basin. By means of analysis and evaluation of the grave goods, the elements of the burial rite of children’s graves, it is possible to detect certain distinctive phenomena that show the importance of child individuals of higher social class. In terms of archaeological material, it is shown to a large extent by analogical phenomena of the burials of adult elite individuals. The phenomena manifest themselves with certain deviations due to the effect of a different social and cultural-ethnic development.