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’. Discussion The analysed data indicate that nurses are recruited from the lower social strata. This background has a definitive impact on their future careers, both in an existential and in a cultural way, and since in this feature, the whole

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Rachel L. Sanacora, Seth W. Whiting, Corey E. Pilver, Rani A. Hoff, and Marc N. Potenza

need for public health interventions across social strata to reduce the impact that greater problem-gambling severity may have with respect to psychopathology. In contrast to the anticipated greater strength between problem-gambling severity and

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Bread plays an outstanding role even by European standards in Hungarian diet, mainly in the everyday food of the lower social strata. From the second half of the 20th century, changes can be documented in this pattern both in home bread baking and consumption. Behind the changes in food culture are macro socio-economic processes transforming the traditions. The study traces the general course of this process, drawing mainly on rural examples and comparing them with the situation in Budapest.

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Social Position and Dress in the Kiskunság Region in the 18th-19th Centuries - The article gives a glimpse into the dress culture of the Kiskun District that existed from the late 17th century to 1876, located in the region between the Rivers Danube and Tisza. Drawing on research in archives, it examines the costumes worn by women and men in the different social strata and the regulations governing dress. The manner of dress that developed as a result of the bans and regulations can be reconstructed from the documents of litigation, wills, inventories of estates and reports by the board of guardians. Using examples taken from this archive material the author presents several festive and everyday costumes, showing that dress had the function of indicating status. She concludes that the leaders of local society used the regulations on dress to support the preservation of external appearances reflecting social status.

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Training Peasants', Shepherds' and Servants' Children for Work - The study gives a national overview of how the children of families employed in agriculture were trained for work, their working conditions and the role they played in the tasks. Citing 18th-19th century archival sources it shows that great emphasis was placed on the employment of minors, both in peasant households and farms and on the big estates. Children were put to work later in prosperous families than in the poorer families. The author describes how the skills for work were acquired, the working methods taught and supervised in the different social strata and occupational groups. Even games and amusements helped to educate children for work. The author also presents the life of children of servants on the big estates who helped their families with their earnings right from primary school age. The photographic illustrations are from the collection of the Hungarian Agricultural Museum.

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This case-study reveals the elements of coexistence of Jews and Hungarians at a market town, Makó, in the Great Hungarian Plain, exploring relations in the interwar years and in particular the period between the Great Depression and the adoption of the first Jewish law, 1929-1938. Based on numerous interviews, the author has collected the mainly stereotyped opinions of the Hungarians about their Jewish neighbours.

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The Slovene ballad Animals Bury the Hunter is an animal narrative song of jocular character. It tells of the burial of a hunter and of a funeral procession not composed of humans but wild animals (a bear, foxes, hares, a wolf, cranes and partridges, song birds, etc.) who seem to derive great joy from the event. The analysis of the song's 31 variants reveals the changes made to the song over the course of time, as it survived through different historical periods and spread throughout Slovenia. I attempt to show that the ballad was used as a model for painted beehive panels featuring the same motif. In addition to the analysis, I am concerned with the sociological and ethical elements of the ballad. The paper proposes at least three possible theses: 1. The song is part of the conception of a topsy-turvy world, where the roles and mutual relationships of people and animals are reversed in an ironic sociological view of the world.  2. The song is a critique of one class by another: peasants mocking hunters who belong to a different social stratum. 3. The song is a representation of “pre-Cartesian” times, when animals were not “mere machines” without feelings, to be treated by man as objects with no ethical significance. It points to the ethical aspects of the human treatment of animals.

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Manners of performance by Hungarian village- and town gypsy musicians in historical recordings . The paper describes the different elements of the performance: ornamentation, vibrato, improvisation, intensity of sound, tempo, register, pizzicato, etc. Musical examples are from the first period of the 20th century, from material of the Folk Music Department and Sound-Archiv of the Institute for Musicology of the HAS. The topic is structured as follows: short history of the instrumental music fieldworks: phonograph recordings and (later) 78 rpm shall-lack discs with instrumental music (peasants and gypsy musicians). The early recording-firms published discs as soon as in the 1910–20-ies with the most favourite contemporary ensembles (I. Magyari, B. Radics). Contemporary references describe their performance which was robust but full with nobility, graciosity, glittering viruosity, rich fantasy dynamism. The differences are clear among the two social strata (peasants and gypsy musicians), when performers play the same melody: one as dance music (in the villages) and one as restaurant music (only to hear) in the town. Some elements (like pizzicato) are used alone (or nearly exclusively) by gypsies, others are common features of the performance.

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Scorched-earth tactics are as old as warfare itself. Throughout Europe military commanders of the Early Modern Age used them, as the Persians did against the attacking Ottomans. Accordingly, along with his fellow-generals, Lazarus Freiherr von Schwendi, one of the best-known German military theorists and commanders of the 16th century, repeatedly urged that scorched-earth tactics be introduced in the Habsburg Monarchy’s Hungarian theatre of war against the Ottomans, and that territories lost after the fall of Buda in 1541 be laid waste. Despite this, the systematic and widespread use of these tactics was rather rare in the areas of Hungary in which the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire faced each other during the 16th and 17th centuries. When they were chosen, they were employed only to a limited extent. While most of the pay of the soldiers serving in the border-defence system protecting Central Europe was provided by the Austrian, Bohemian and German provinces of the Habsburg Monarchy, a significant proportion of their food came from regions of Hungary that were under Ottoman sway. At the same time, these regions were not just a source of foodstuffs for those serving in the chain of fortresses built against the Ottomans, but also an area which offered economic opportunities to broad social strata in the Kingdom of Hungary (nobles, border-fortress soldiers and market town peasants), primarily in the spheres of cattle-breeding and trade. As a result of all this, the systematic laying waste of these territories conflicted with the fundamental interests of Hungarian society and Estates. The serious political conflicts that would have accompanied the use of scorched-earth tactics (whose consequences would in any event have been uncertain) were never invited by the Habsburg military and political leadership.

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Ethnographic research that focused mainly on agrarian groups living at the lower level of society did not really seek or find a handle to approach Jewish culture in the late 19th and early 20th century. At the same time, for its part, the Hungarian Jewry made no effort to deal with its own culture from the viewpoint of ethnography. Although ethnographic and anthropological research has been conducted since then, and important results have been achieved, it cannot be claimed that the subject has been exhausted. That is why the Ethnography Museum’s exhibition Picking up the Pieces: Fragments of Rural Hungarian Jewish Culture was an important, unique and timely opportunity for both experts and audience. The exhibition aimed to conjure up an image of rural Hungarian Jewish life before the Holocaust based the materials in the museum. For the first time, the exhibition presented the Museum’s small but important collection of Judaica, Jewish implements, objects that entered the collection through art dealers and private collectors, not to mention the rich photographic material. In addition, local “case studies” were utilized to grasp the distinctive culture of the everyday life of the Jewish population, their position within the majority society, and the possible paths (mazes) of modernity. Various issues were discussed, not in general but through concrete examples (family histories, specific communities, local characteristics, etc.), and in this spirit, several specific themes were presented, such as weekdays and festive days, various situations, occupations and social strata. In the second part of the study, special mention is made of a few highlighted objects from the exhibition through the eyes of visiting American students.

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