part, Section 2 provides literature review and theoretical background for the research. In Section 3 , I explain the empirical approach, survey design, how I measure pro-social behaviour and social capital and report descriptive statistics of the
Most of the studies investigating the effect of early rearing environment in dogs used laboratory dogs and reported that early experiences markedly affect the puppies’ behavior. However, the subjects of these experiments cannot be considered as representatives of family dogs.
In this study, we investigated whether different raising conditions shape social behavior toward humans in 8-week-old family dog puppies of two breeds, Labrador and Czechoslovakian wolf dog. The puppies were tested in a series of tests that represented typical situations of family dogs.
We found that Czechoslovakian wolf dog puppies were more active than Labrador puppies in general, as they were more likely to explore the environment and the objects and spent more time doing so. Tendency to gaze at humans also varied between breeds, but in a context-specific way. Additionally, puppies housed separately from their mother interacted more with toys, puppies housed in a kennel tended to stay closer to the experimenter than puppies raised in the house, and puppies housed in a kennel tended to stay in the proximity of the experimenter more than puppies raised in the house.
Our results provide evidence for early keeping conditions influencing social behavior and also highlight breed differences in puppies’ behavior. Whether these differences are due to different developmental patterns and/or behavioral predispositions remains to be explored.
In the present paper we report original thousand-seed weight data for the flora of the Pannonian Basin. Our goal was to demonstrate the usefulness of seed weight databases by analysing seed weight data in relation to social behaviour types and life forms. We specifically asked the following questions: (i) how the seed weights are related to social behaviour type categories; (ii) how the life form of the species influences seed weight differences between respective social behaviour types? Own weight measurements are provided for 1,405 taxa; and for 187 taxa we published seed weight data for the first time: these were mostly endemics, orchids and/or species with Pontic, Caspian or continental distribution. Several taxonomic or functional groups are underrepresented in our database, like aquatic plants, rare arable weeds and sub-Mediterranean species. Problematic taxa, some difficult-to-harvest species or species with low seed production and cultivated adventives are also underrepresented. We found that the plant strategies expressed by social behaviour types were significantly different in terms of seed weights. The lowest seed weight scores were found for natural pioneers, whereas the highest ones were found for adventives and introduced cultivated plants. Short-lived herbaceous species had significantly higher seed weight scores than herbaceous perennials. No significant differences were found between specialists and generalists within the stress tolerant group. We found that short-lived graminoids possess heavier seeds than perennial graminoids, perennial and annual forbs. Naturalness scores were negatively correlated with seed weights. Our findings showed that seed collections and databases are not only for storing plant material and seed weight data, but can be effectively used for understanding ecological trends and testing plant trait-based hypotheses. Even the identified gaps underline the necessity of further seed collection and measurements.
A média hatása a szociális viselkedésre és a társas kapcsolatok alakulására serdülőkorban
The Impact of Electronic Media on Social Behaviour and Social Relationships in Adolescence
and Ought Selves in Video Gaming. Social Behavior and Personality , 39/9. pp. 1175–1182. 22 Kochanska, G. – Aksan, N. (2006) Children’s Conscience and Self
Here we suggest that subjects' performance in a traditional object permanence paradigm could be based on the contribution of different cognitive capacities such as (1) the ability to represent an object mentally in case of invisible displacements; (2) the ability to use appropriate deductive inferences; (3) the ability to use associative learning and local rules or cues; and (4) the presence of appropriate motivation to solve the task. In addition to these, there is another factor that may contribute to the performance, at least in some social species: (5) the ability to identify and use social rules that are formed by the interaction with the experimenter during the consecutive object hiding and search tasks. Experiment 1 was designed to demonstrate that such social rules may have an independent influence on the performance of both human and dog subjects during consecutive object hiding and search tasks. The behaviors of adult and preschool humans and adult pet dogs were compared in a modified version of the successive invisible displacements task (no object condition) and in a similar task in which, however, the location of the target object was well known by the subjects (game condition ). During the no object condition most of the humans and dogs performed a full and systematic search of all potential hiding places. However, results in game condition indicate that Piagetian object permanence tests may be interpreted by both dogs and humans not only as object hiding and finding tasks, but, alternatively, as social-behavioral games of different sorts that may contribute to the systematic search performance. It seems that successful performance on such tasks should not be interpreted exclusively as indicating a representational understanding of object permanence and an ability for deductive inferences. A second experiment was directly designed to demonstrate the influential effect of social rules in the object hiding and finding tasks. Results show that the functional 'opacity' of the Hider's behaviour (i.e., performing both functionally relevant and irrelevant actions upon hiding) enhanced the emergence of 'obeying social rules' (i.e., dogs tended to perform search behaviour, although they knew the location of the target object). We suggest that during their domestication dogs may have been selected for certain human-like capacities such as recognising and following social rules in the context of interacting with humans.
. D. (1964): The genetical evolution of social behaviour. J. Theor. Biol. 7 : 1-52. The genetical evolution of social behaviour J. Theor. Biol. 7
Hogyan és miért vált a kutya a kognitív viselkedéstudomány „csimpánzává”?
How and Why the Dogs Have Become the „New Chimpanzees” for Cognitive Scientists?
Behaviour , 53 , 297 – 304 . Heinrichs , M. , von Dawans , B. , & Domes , G. ( 2009 ). Oxytocin, vasopressin, and human social behavior . Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology , 30
62 304 311 . N.G. Blurton Jones 1967 An ethological study of some aspects of social behaviour of children in nursery school
Benjamin, L.S. (1974) ‘Structural Analysis of Social Behavior’, Psychological Review 81, 392–425. Benjamin L.S. Structural Analysis of Social Behavior
Stepping back to advance: Why IGD needs an intensified debate instead of a consensus
Commentary on: Chaos and confusion in DSM-5 diagnosis of Internet Gaming Disorder: Issues, concerns, and recommendations for clarity in the field (Kuss et al.)
identification of a clear “villain” seems to be not only important for etiological reasons but also for the justification of a clear-cut diagnosis. On a more general level, one may question the very idea of defining a social behavior as a disease