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organised themselves in a day, and managed to save lives and wealth. For the first time, this country witnessed the importance of its social capital and a hope that this post-conflict society, where the conflict has an ethnic background, has ‘the tie that

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—10. Kopp M., Skrabski Á. (1995): Magyar lelkiállapot. Végeken Alapítvány, Budapest Lindström, M., Axén, E. (2004): Social capital, the miniaturization of community and assessment of patient satisfaction in primary healthcare

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Human resource is the major source of competitive advantages for an enterprise. Discussions aiming at the role of human resource in educational communities are progressing in past years. From the mobility of human resource in an organization, retaining human assets or reducing the mobility to the lowest are considered as the professional commitment of human resource and the direction for efforts. A new viewpoint about the role of human resource reveals that the role of human resource is to change social capital into the driving force of competitive advantages of an organization. It might affect the presentation of different roles of human resource in various corporate characteristics. For this reason, the effects of high-tech corporate characteristics on social capital and role of human resource management are discussed in this study.

Aiming at Kunshan High-tech Industrial Development Zone, the management and the employees in the manufacturers are distributed 1000 copies of questionnaires, and 683 valid copies are retrieved, with the retrieval rate 68%. The research results show 1. significantly positive effects of social capital on the role of human resource, 2. remarkably positive effects of corporate characteristics on social capital, and 3. notably positive effects of corporate characteristics on the role of human resource. It is expected to verify richer and more diverse effects for the reference of successive research and practice communities.

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; Pascarella & Terenzini, 2005 ). Some researchers characterize the resources from the student’s relationships as social capital ( Altbach, 2009 ; Kim & Schneider, 2005 ; Perna & Titus, 2005 ). In our previous studies, we showed the strong

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There is controversy about the potential for collective action in Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs). Many authors argue that the level of social capital is low in CEECs, whereas others underline that, while trust in authorities and the state may be low, interpersonal networks are present. This paper explores the issue on the basis of three case studies conducted in the project IDARI (“Integrated Development of Agriculture and Rural Institutions in Central and Eastern European Countries”). They study rural cooperation projects, i.e. production and marketing in agricultural cooperatives, a rural tourism initiative and the management of a national park. It was asked: what is the basis for successful cooperation and what are the reasons why cooperation fails? The conclusion is that two main obstacles for collective action in rural CEECs are low bridging of social capital and unclear gains from cooperation. In such a situation, well-connected local leaders who provide credible information and establish links among different actor groups and with authorities can be of crucial importance to achieve collective action. This finding is interesting because most of the literature on social capital does not acknowledge the need for a “mediating agency”but expects cooperation to happen “automatically”where enough social capital is present. However, it is also shown that leadership becomes difficult where conflicting interests, low general trust and little initiative of actors prevail. A policy conclusion is that better financial and technical support for prospective leaders in rural cooperation projects in CEECs could contribute to the success of initiatives.

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Summary  

The difference between individual social capital and organizational (or corporate) social capital has been an important topic of research in sociology during the past decade. The existence of this difference between two forms of social capital evokes an old question in a new manner: what matters most in explaining individual actors' performance? Is it personal social or collective resources provided by the organization to which the individuals belong and in which they work? In this paper we provide a preliminary answer to this question based on a multi-level network study of the top 'elites' in French cancer research during 1996-1998. By multi-level we mean that we reconstituted both the inter-organizational networks of exchange between most French laboratories carrying out cancer research in 1999; simultaneously, we reconstituted key social networks of the top individual elites in cancer research in France during that same year. Given our 'linked design' (i.e., knowing to which laboratory each researcher belongs), we were able to disentangle the effects of structural properties of the laboratory from the effects of characteristics of the individual researcher (including structural ones) on the latter's performance. Performance was measured by a score based on the impact factor of the journal in which each researcher published. Our results show that organizational social capital matters more, and more consistently, than individual relational capital in explaining variations in performance by French top cancer researchers.

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Nie, N.H. and Erbring, L. (2000): Internet and Society. Stanford Institute for the Quantitative Study of Society. Norris, P. (2000): Making Democracies Work: Social Capital and Civic Engagement in 47 Societies. Paper for the

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Coleman, J.S. (1988): Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital. In: Ganzeboom, H. and Linderberg, S. eds.: Verklarende Sociologie . Amsterdam: Thesis Publishers. Coleman J

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. Contemporary Practices and Controversies 1999 Woolcock, M. 2001: The Place of Social Capital in Understanding Social and Economic Outcomes. Canadian Journal of Policy Research 2(1): 11

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kiegészíti az Internet a társadalmi tőkét? [Does Internet Increase, Decrease or Supplement Social Capital?] Információs Társadalom , 2(1): 5–26. Hampton K. Növeli, csökkenti vagy

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