Rethinking Informal and Incidental Learning in Terms of Complexity and the SocialContext
Adult and workplace education in the knowledge era has increasingly embraced informal learning as a complementary partner to more
In nomothetic research exercise addiction is studied on the basis of symptoms which are most often linked to exercise volume. However, other factors may also affect individuals’ susceptibility to the disorder. The aim of this research was to examine the influence of gender, social context (team or individual sport), and level of athletic training on symptoms of exercise addiction.
Two groups of university athletes — sport- (n = 57) and non-sport orientation (n = 90) — and a group of elite ultra-marathon runners (n = 95) completed the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI). The psychometric properties of the Spanish EAI were determined.
EAI scores were higher in men than women (p =.018). Participants in team sports reported higher EAI scores than individual athletes (p =.005). Elite runners scored higher on the EAI than university athletes (p =.005), but their scores were unrelated to the volume of training. The prevalence of “at risk” for exercise addiction was 7%–10% in university athletes and 17% among the ultra-marathon runners. The Spanish EAI showed good psychometric properties.
The results of the current inquiry show that several factors — including gender, level of athletic training, and social context of the training — affect exercise addiction and, in line with the literature, the volume of exercise did not emerge as an index of susceptibility to exercise addiction.
A kutatás két többségi társadalom, a magyar és az olasz, cigányságról alkotott szociális reprezentációját tárja fel több módszeres megközelítéssel. A jelentéskonstrukciókban talált különbségeket konstruktivista nézőpontból értelmezi: a két kontextus e specifikus többség/kisebbség viszonyának különbségeivel és az általános társadalomtörténethez szorosan kapcsolódó többségi identitáskonstrukciók minőségi különbségeivel magyarázza.
The present study examines the Hungarian practice of public catering for children from an economic perspective, bearing in mind that the production and consumption of food is, at the same time, an economic activity. Taking this approach, we focus on which institutions contribute to or hinder efficiency, by which we mean the efforts of economic agents to generate maximum welfare from the available (meager) resources. For social reasons, the supply of public catering for children is a statutory obligation on the part of local authorities, where efficiency must be combined with social considerations. The study reviews the rationing mechanism of school meals catering as a public service, looking first at the main factors determining the level of demand for public catering for children, and then at the main factors that influence supply.
This paper is about the translation of comic books from an “importing” country like Italy to an “exporting” country, the USA. Our analysis focuses on the publication by Dark Horse, a major USA “independent” comic books publisher (as opposed to “mainstream” publishers such as Marvel and DC comics) of a number of comic books featuring Dylan Dog, the main character and title bearer of a monthly series of considerable success in Italy. First of all we introduce the original series against the background of the Italian comics market and readership, highlighting the elements that make Dylan Dog a unique cultural product. We then proceed to discuss the general publishing strategies which characterize the North American edition. In the light of this discussion, we analyse the content of the comic books using the “anatomy of comics” proposed by Kaindl (1999), who distinguishes between linguistic, typographic and pictorial signs. Through a comparative analysis of original and translated elements we wish to account for the type of changes which have taken place during the translation process. Our conclusions are drawn according to Grun and Dollerup's (2003) distinction between “gains with losses” and “gains without losses”.
In an effort to provide further empirical evidence of meaningful differences, this study explores, in a student population, the distinctions in gambling behavioral patterns and specific associated problems of two levels of gambling severity by comparing problem gamblers (PG) and moderate-risk gamblers (MR) as defined by the score on the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI; MR: 3-7; PG: 8 and more).
The study sample included 2,139 undergraduate students (male = 800, mean age = 22.6) who completed the PGSI and questionnaires on associated problems.
Results show that problem gamblers engage massively and more diversely in gambling activities, more often and in a greater variety of locations, than moderate-risk gamblers. In addition, important differences have been observed between moderate-risk and problem gamblers in terms of expenditures and accumulated debt. In regards to the associated problems, compared to moderate-risk gamblers, problem gamblers had an increased reported psychological distress, daily smoking, and possible alcohol dependence.
Discussion and Conclusions
The severity of gambling and associated problems found in problem gamblers is significantly different from moderate-risk gamblers, when examined in a student population, to reiterate caution against the amalgamation of these groups in future research.
his MIT laboratory.
This cultural consideration leads us to bear in mind another point: the socialcontexts in which video gaming takes place. Asian countries, such as Taiwan, South Korea, and China, are more prone to classifying it as a disorder
general public and a specific socialcontext, where the behaviour has taken place and achieved sufficient attention to generate action. The inclusion of the proposed fourth criterion will aid comprehensibility of the current proposal and provide clarity
state socialcontext to be linked to burnout. Similar to some resources like support of superior and lack of interpersonal conflicts, supportive colleagues can reduce job stress, as different studies found a negative link between workplace social support