Proper understanding of sorption behaviour of the materials is important from the point of view of fundamental research and technology as well for applied building technology. In this paper a simple method is presented for measuring water sorption capability of solid bodies. Moisture sorption and desorption measurements were carried out on soil samples by using climatic chamber. After drying the samples in a Venticell 111 type drying equipment they were treated with a Climacell 111 type climate chamber, where the relative humidity (RH) was varied from 40 to 83% at 22°C for different times (40, 80, 120 and 240 minutes). The samples reached the equilibrium moisture content after 120 minutes for sorption. The desorption isotherm measurements were carried out at 22°C for 80 minutes of exposure at constant RH. At this point hysteresis phenomenon was observed. Besides the moisture content figures the time evolution of the damping process is also presented in this paper.
A procedure is described for recovering a representative soil sample from complex terrain for the purpose of determining the integrated radionuclide inventory deposited in the area. The precision of the inventory estimates is shown to be ±10% or less for137Cs and239+240Pu, and there is no statistically significant bias in the inventory estimates for the sampling location compared to the estimates made by other techniques. In complex terrains, the radiochemical composition of the soil beneath the unvegetated surfaces (desert pavement), grass, bush, and trees is shown to vary. These variations are interpreted to be due to changes in the translocation efficiency of particles of different size from the desert pavement to the soil beneath the vegetated covers.
Soil samples from a waste water cleaning facility in Berlin, Germany, have been analyzed using several activation analysis
methods. 43 elements have been determined by instrumental high energy photon activation analysis (PAA), instrumental thermal
neutron activation analysis (NAA) and 14 MeV neutron activation analysis (fNAA). Conventional gamma ray spectroscopy and low
energy photon spectroscopy (LEPS) have been applied for product activity measurement. It has turned out that these methods
in combination offer a wide spectrum of analytical information.
A sensitive and accurate method for determination of radium isotopes in soil samples by α-spectrometry has been developed 225Ra, which is in equilibrium with its mother 229Th, was used as a yield tracer. Radium in soil samples was fused together with Na2CO3 and Na2O2 at 600 °C, leached with HNO3, HCl and HF, preconcentrated by coprecipitation with BaSO4, separated from uranium, thorium and iron using a Microthene-TOPO chromatographic column, isolated from barium in a cation-exchange
resin column using 0.05M 1,2-cyclohexylene-dinitrilo-tetraacetic acid monohydrate as an eluant, electrodeposited on a stainless
steel disc, and counted by α-spectrometry. The detection limit of the method is 0.43 Bq·kg−1 for 226Ra, 228Ra and 224Ra if 0.50 g of soil sample are analyzed. The method was checked with two certified reference materials supplied by the IAEA,
and reliable results were obtained Fourteen soil samples collected from the refractory industry in Italy were also analyzed.
The mean radiochemical yields for radium were 85.7±4.3%, and the obtained radium concentrations in the soil samples were in
the range of 8.08–3878 Bq·kg−1 for 226Ra, of 1.60–678 Bq·kg−1 for 228Ra and 1.25–550 Bq·kg−1 for 224Ra, with 228Ra/226Ra and 224Ra/226Ra ratios ranged from 0.159–0.821 and from 0.142 to 0.525, respectively.
Authors:B. Karakelle, N. Öztürk, A. Köse, A. Varinlioğbrevelu, A. Erkol, and F. Yilmaz
The city of Kocaeli is in the western part of Anatolia in Turkey and has a population of approximately 1.000.000. There is no information about radioactivity in the Kocaeli soils samples so far. For this reason, the concentrations of the natural radionuclides in soil samples from 27 different sampling stations in Kocaeli Basin and its surroundings have been determined. The results have been compared with other radioactivity measurements in different country"s soils. The typical concentrations of 137Cs, 238U, 40K, 226Ra, 232Th found in surface soil samples ranged from 2±0.6 to 25±6 Bq/kg, from 11±4 to 49±10 Bq/kg, from 161±30 to 964±127 Bq/kg, from 10±4 to 58±11 Bq/kg, and from 11±3 to 65±13 Bq/kg, respectively.
Neutron activation analysis (NAA) have been used for the determination of major, minor, and trace elements in 20 soil samples from 5 crop fields of the Crop Research Centre, Pantnagar, India. Fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA) and cyclic neutron activation analysis (CNAA) have been used to determine the concentrations of various elements. The results for minor and trace elements are compared with the level of abundances of world soils. The present study provides the basic data of elemental concentrations in soil samples of 5 major crop fields located in one of the leading agricultural universities of India for future measurements with the objectives of efficient use of fertilizers and pesticides in accordance with the high yield.
Authors:K. Nunes, C. Munita, M. Vasconcellos, P. Oliveira, C. Croci, and F. Faleiros
Soil samples were collected from two small agricultural fields located in Médanos and Hilario Ascasubi, Bahía Blanca, Argentina
and analyzed for Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc, Th, U, Yb, and Zn by instrumental neutron activation analysis
(INAA). In order to evaluate the contribution of anthropogenic sources and the similarity/dissimilarity between the samples,
the database was studied by means of enrichment factors (EF) and discriminant analysis (DA), respectively. In addition to
identifying redundant variables without losing essential information, the data set was studied using forward stepwise discriminant
Authors:Veronika Paučová, Boris Remenec, Silvia Dulanská, Ľubomír Mátel, and Martina Prekstová
The purpose of this study was to test a method for 99Tc determination in soil samples from locality Bratislava Podunajske Biskupice by using solid phase extraction technique with
a new sorbent AnaLig® Tc-02—molecular recognition technology product. The method is suitable for analyzing soil samples in a relatively short time
and high recoveries. The use and effectiveness of AnaLig® Tc-02 were successfully tested by analysis of soil and spiked soil samples.