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Summary  

The comprehension of the behavior of radioactive nuclides in aquifer requires the study of the sorption processes of nuclides in various geochemical conditions. The sorption/desorption of 65Zn(II) on surface sediments (0-2 cm) was investigated by batch method in sea water (pH 8.20, 35‰ salinity, filtered by 0.45mm) at ambient temperature. The surface sediments were obtained from four stations around the Daya Bay of Guangdong Province (China), where the first nuclear power station of China has been running from 1994. The sorption process is fast initially and around 39% average of sorption percentage (SP%) can be quickly obtained in 15 minutes for all the surface sediments. Then, the sorption percentage becomes constant. In 30 days of contact time 79.6% sorption percentage and K d=3.9. 103ml/g distribution coefficient was obtained. The value of K dbecame constant, 4.0. 103ml/g, in contact time more than 120 hours. The distribution coefficient K ddecreases with increasing sediment concentration from 4.0 to 250 mg/l from 1.31. 104to 1.68. 103ml/g, respectively. Then the value of K dgoes up to 5.38. 103ml/g with sediment concentration of 3000 mg/l. The desorption experiments suggest that the sorption of Zn(II) is irreversible with a hyteresis coefficient of 66%.

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Abstract  

The reactive mechanism of cesium in crushed granite was demonstrated in this study through a numerical analysis or a model of the results of sorption/desorption kinetic tests. To employ such numerical analysis, this study applied batch kinetic tests with different solid to liquid ratios (1: 20 and 1: 30) for the characterization of sorption/desorption reaction of Cs and the calibration/validation of hypothesized reactive models. Based on the least square errors (LSE) between numerical analysis and results of batch tests, the two-site sorption models, which are corresponding to two decay constants (λ 1 and λ 2), might be more adequate than one-site sorption models in characterizing Cs sorption/desorption. Moreover, a two-site Langmuir kinetic model has been found to be capable of appropriately describing Cs sorption/desorption under test conditions.

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Summary  

The behavior of cadmium labeled with 109Cd in different depth horizons of arable and forest soils were studied under static (batch) conditions in three interconnected processes, which consist of sorption, desorption and extraction. In the sorption, Cd2+ was applied in the aqueous calcium nitrate solution. Both untreated soils and peroxide treated soils were used in order to remove organic matter from some of the soil samples used in parallel. The influence of the V/m ratio on the sorption coefficients was investigated in preliminary experiments with untreated soils. Contrary to the usually short-term sorption, a long-term sorption of cadmium was investigated in untreated and treated soil horizons, which lasted more than fortnight. Kinetic studies of sorption were carried out and cadmium concentration dependence in aqueous phase of the second order kinetic constants was observed. For evaluation of sorption and desorption processes Freundlich isotherms were used. It was found that the Freundlich adsorption intensity coefficient is more time dependent than the absorption capacity coefficient, and the sorption itself consists of rapid and slow processes according to the soil constituents. Desorption and extraction processes revealed the possibility of cadmium recovery from various soil horizons. Based on the obtained results two- or three-stage theory of cadmium retention in soils was proposed. Some new insight into the role of organic matter in the sorption/desorption process of cadmium is also presented.

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Abstract  

The sorption/desorption of radioruthenium was investigated by the batch method in sea water system at ambient temperature on the surface sediments obtained around the Daya Bay of Guangdong Province, where the first nuclear power station of China has been running from 1994. It was found that the sorption percentage was obtained to be around 40% for all the surface sediments in 60 minutes. Then, the sorption percentage goes up slowly. The sorption percentage of radioruthenium reached around 80% in 113 days (2713 hours). The distribution coefficients decreased from 3.16·104 to 1.35·103 ml/g with the increasing of sediment concentration in the range of 4–10000 mg/l. The results of the desorption experiments suggest that the sorption of radioruthenium is irreversible with 81.5% relative hysteresis coefficient.

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Abstract  

In this work, Na-montmorillonite was used as a novel adsorbent for the sorption of Ni(II) from aqueous solutions. The sorption and desorption of Ni(II) on Na-montmorillonite was investigated as the function of pH, ionic strength, Ni(II) concentrations and temperature. The results indicated that the sorption of Ni(II) on Na-montmorillonite was strongly dependent on pH, ionic strength and temperature. The sorption of Ni(II) increases slowly from 22.1 to 51.4% at pH range 2–6.5, abruptly at pH 6.5–9, and at last maintains high level with increasing pH at pH > 9 in 0.1 mol/L NaNO3 solutions. The Ni(II) kinetic sorption on Na-montmorillonite was fitted by the pseudo-second-order model better than by the pseudo-first-order model and the experimental data implies that Ni(II) sorption on montmorillonite were mainly controlled by the film diffusion mechanism. The Langmuir, Freundlich and D–R models were used to simulate the sorption data at three different temperatures (298.15, 318.15 and 338.15 K) and the results indicated that Langmuir model simulates the experimental data better than Freundlich and D–R models. The sorption–desorption isotherm of Ni(II) on montmorillonite suggested that the sorption is irreversible. The irreversible sorption of Ni(II) on montmorillonite indicates that montmorillonite can be used to pre-concentration and solidification of Ni(II) from large volumes of solution and to storage Ni(II) ions stably.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: K. Ioannides, T. Mertzimekis, D. Karamanis, K. Stamoulis, and I. Kirikopoulos

Abstract  

The kinetics of radiocesium sorption and desorption by cation solutions and the corresponding radiocesium distribution profiles in sediment cores were investigated. The results have shown that a significant percentage of radiocesium is adsorbed in the sediments during the first 3 d. Radiocesium reaches rapidly (< than 5 d) at a depth which does not exceed 3.5 cm. The desorption of radiocesium was found to depend on cation concentrations. Empirical laws are derived both for cesium adsorption and desorption.

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Abstract  

The ability of some antural Mexican clays to sorb radioactive Co from aqueous solution and then desorb it has been measured. The clay cations seem to be exchanged with cations present in the solution. It was observed that the amount of sorbed Co2+ depends nearly linearly on the Na++K+ content in the montmorillonites. It was found that the crystallinity was not altered after Co2+ sorption. Crystallinity of clays, before and after cobalt exchange, was determined by X-ray diffraction.

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Summary  

The sorption and desorption properties of cesium on three sulfate-resistant Portland cements, and one Type III Portland cement, with water-to-cement ratios of 0.33, 0.43, and 0.53 were evaluated. Experimental sorption Kd values obtained at 1 day ranged from 0.60-37.1 l . kg-1 with the smallest values observed for the sulfate-resistant Portland cements, and the greatest amount of cesium sorption occurring in the Type III Portland cement. Results indicated that cesium sorption showed significant hysteresis and was only partially reversible on the time scale of these experiments.

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Abstract  

In general, the amount of radiocesium sorbed by the five sorbents with 0.01 mol·dm–3 NaCl was in order zeolite > NiFeCN–SiO2 > montmorillonite > aerogel > silica gel. Addition of humic acid solution to the sorbents depressed the sorption of cesium by all sorbents, except for NiFeCN–SiO2 was not seen, with the greatest effect showing to the aerogel. The presence of humic acid resulted in an enhanced desorption of cesium from zeolite, NiFeCN–SiO2 and to a lesser extent from montmorillonite and silica gel. The order of cesium retention following desorption for both sorbent and sorbent/humic-acid mixtures was zeolit > NiFeCN–SiO2 > montmorillonite > silica gel. The presence of humic acid resulted in decreasing of distribution coefficient values for both sorption and desorption processes.

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Abstract  

The properties of the solid-state of drug substances are critical factors that determine the choice of an appropriate salt form for the development of the pharmaceutical formulation. The most relevant properties may affect the therapeutic efficacy, toxicity, bioavailability, pharmaceutical processing and stability. The salt form must fulfil the needs of the targeted formulation, be suitable for full-scale production and its solid-state properties maintained batchwise as well as over time. Comparison of the solid-state properties of different salt candidates may be quite complicated if each salt candidate exist as different solid phases: polymorphs, solvates or amorphous forms. Thermal analysis, microcalorimetry and combined techniques, X-ray diffraction, solubility, intrinsic dissolution, sorption-desorption and stability studies are basic techniques for the characterisation of the salt candidates. Some examples show the role of the salt form as well as the polymorphic form in the characteristics of the solid-state. Thermal analysis and combined techniques are efficient for the detection of unexpected phase transitions and for the comparison of the suitability of the salt candidates prepared for salt selection.

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