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Abstract  

Modified carbon multiwall nanotubes were prepared via the oxidation process by means of 65% nitric acid or ferric nitrate dissolved with 65% nitric acid. Using special thermogravimetry and sorptometry methods physicochemical properties of pure and modified nanotube surfaces were investigated. A numerical and analytical procedure for the evaluation of total heterogeneous properties on the basis of liquid thermodesorption from the sample surfaces under the quasi-equilibrium conditions are presented. The calculations of the fractal dimensions of carbon nanotubes using the sorptometry and thermogravimetry data is presented.

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Abstract  

Uniformly carbon-covered alumina (CCA) was prepared via the carbonisation of sucrose highly dispersed on the alumina surface. Using special thermogravimetry and sorptometry methods physicochemical properties of carbon-covered alumina surfaces were investigated. A numerical and analytical procedure for the evaluation of total heterogeneous properties (desorption energy distribution and pore-size distribution functions) on the basis of liquid thermodesorption from the sample surfaces under the quasi-equilibrium conditions are presented. The desorption energy distribution was derived from the mass loss Q-TG and the differential mass loss Q-DTG curves of thermodesorption of pre-adsorbed polar and apolar liquid films. For the first time, the evaluation of the fractal dimensions of carbon-covered alumina using the sorptometry, thermogravimetry and AFM data is presented.

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Abstract  

Calculations based on the fractal geometry in the estimation of surface heterogeneity are superior compared with conventional calculation methods (e.g. from the data of gas adsorption or X-ray radiation scattering) as they can be applied without limitation as far as the range of surface sizes of the studied structures is concerned. This paper presents structural characteristics of carbon and carbon- free nanomaterials based on the determined surface and volumetric fractal coefficients. Fractal coefficients were determined from the data obtained by means of two independent methods: sorptometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Correlation between porosity parameters and fractal coefficients is presented.

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Studies of surface properties of Na- and La-montmorillonites

Thermogravimetry Q-TG, sorptometry, porosimetry and AFM methods

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: P. Staszczuk, J. Bazan, M. Błachnio, D. Sternik, and N. Garcia

Abstract  

This paper presents possible applications of thermal analysis, sorptometry and porosimetry to study physico-chemical properties of Na- and La-montmorillonite samples, especially for determination of total surface heterogeneity. The quasi-isothermal thermogravimetric (Q-TG) mass loss and its first derivative (Q-DTG) curves with respect to temperature and time obtained during programmed liquid thermodesorption under quasi-isothermal conditions have been used to study adsorbed layers and heterogeneous properties of the Na- and La-montmorillonites. Calculations of the desorption energy distribution functions by analytical procedure using mass loss Q-TG and differential mass loss Q-DTG curves of thermodesorption under quasi-isothermal conditions of polar and non-polar liquid vapours preadsorbed on a material surface are presented. Parameters relating to porosity of samples were determined by sorptometry, mercury porosimetry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). From nitrogen sorption isotherms from sorptometry and porosimetry methods, the fractal dimensions of montmorillonites have been calculated. Moreover, a new approach is proposed to calculate fractal dimensions of materials obtained from Q-TG curve; this is compared with values obtained by the above methods. The total heterogeneous properties (energy distribution function and pore-size distribution functions) of samples studied were estimated. The radius and pore volume of the tested samples calculated on the basis of thermogravimetry, sorptometry and porosimetry techniques were compared and good correlations obtained.

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Abstract  

Physico-chemical properties (adsorption capacity, desorption energy distribution and pore-size distribution functions) of nanomaterial surfaces from selected materials, based on sorptometric and liquid thermodesorption measurements under quasi-equilibrium conditions, are presented. The fractal dimensions of nanotubes using sorptometric and AFM data have been evaluated. Comparison of thermogravimetric and other data provide new information about the adsorption and pore structure of the studied materials. The fractal dimensions of nanomaterial surfaces using sorptometry are in good agreement with those from AFM.

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Abstract  

Using thermo-analytical and sorptometric methods physicochemical properties and especially surface heterogeneity of HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8+, (Hg-1223) was investigated. The desorption energy distribution was derived from mass loss Q-TG and differential mass loss Q-DTG curves of thermodesorption in quasi-isothermal conditions of pre-adsorbed n-octane and water vapour. It is shown that the superconducting Hg-1223 phase is highly sensitive to water vapours. The mechanism of water adsorption depends largely on the activation time. By water vapour saturation in a period of 90 min, physisorption takes place. Prolonged periods result in a chemical decomposition. From nitrogen ad- and desorption isotherms the fractal dimension of superconductors were calculated. A new approach is proposed to calculate fractal dimension from Q-TG curves.

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Abstract  

Nitrogen adsorption measured at 77 K was used to characterize the surface heterogeneity of high-temperature superconductor surfaces. Properties relating to adsorption and porosity of the solids (adsorption capacity, specific surface area, radii and volume of the pores, pore-size distribution function) were determined from nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms and atomic force microscopy (AFM) for a series of oxide superconductors. It is shown that the adsorption isotherms of all samples are S-shaped and belong to type II according to the IUPAC classification. On the basis of the nitrogen adsorption isotherms and AFM data, fractal dimensions were determined and correlations found with adsorption and porosity parameters.

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sorptometry and AFM data are compared. Experimental In situ bulk sample MgB 2 was fabricated by the “powder in closed tube” method. Mg powder (Merck, purity 99%, size ~ 40 μm) and B (Merck, purity 99.9%, size ~ 0.25 μm) were used

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Abstract  

Programmed thermodesorption of n-butanol from Na-, La-montmorillonite, natural and commercial zeolite samples in quasi-isothermal conditions made. The new method of fractal dimension calculations from thermogravimetry data has been presented. On the basis of nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms from sorptometry and mercury porosimetry data the fractal dimensions of montmorillonites were calculated. The results from above independent and separated techniques were compared and good correlation were obtained.

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Abstract  

The results of surface structure investigations involving the use of thermoporometry and gas-sorptometry on porous glass, silica and a zeolite were compared. The most frequent and the mean pore width were found to be in accordance, but major differences in specific surface were observed. These two measuring methods complement each other, because with gas adsorption a dry sample is investigated, while with thermoporometry a sample immersed in a liquid is investigated. The probe molecules (nitrogen or noble gas and water or benzene, respectively) differ in size. The features of the two methods are discussed.

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