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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Erzsébet Nagy, Marianna Ábrók, Noémi Bartha, László Bereczki, Emese Juhász, Gábor Kardos, Katalin Kristóf, Cecilia Miszti, and Edit Urbán

A mikrobiológiai diagnosztika területén kevés technikai fejlesztés volt az elmúlt évtizedekben, amely olyan rohamos fejlődést hozott volna a baktériumok és gombák fajszintű (speciesszintű) identifikálásában, mint a „matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight” tömegspektrometria. A klinikai mikrobiológiai gyakorlatban ennek jelentősége felbecsülhetetlen, hiszen a kórokozó ismerete jelentősen befolyásolja a terápiás választást még az antimikrobás szerrel szembeni rezisztencia meghatározása előtt. A hagyományos speciesmeghatározás számos, a környezeti hatások által befolyásolt biokémiai reakción alapszik és sok esetben igen időigényes folyamat. A speciális tömegspektrometriás módszer néhány perc alatt elvégzi a kitenyésztett baktérium vagy gomba pontos identifikálását a konzervált riboszomális fehérjék tömegspektrometriás mérése alapján. Emellett a módszer alkalmazásának lehetőségét számos más új területen is kutatják. Így például a pozitív hemokultúrákból történő direkt kórokozó-meghatározás segítségével hamarabb megkezdhető a szeptikus beteg célzott antibiotikumkezelése. Lehetőség van a kórokozó direkt azonosítására pozitív vizeletmintából, esetleg egyébként steril testnedvekből, vagy megkísérelhető szelektív dúsítást követően Salmonella kimutatása székletből. Az izolált baktériumok „extended spectrum beta-lactamase” és karbapenemáztermelésének gyors kimutatása segítheti a terápiás választást. Ez a tömegspektrometriás módszer a közeljövőben a klinikai mikrobiológiai diagnosztika más területein is teret nyerhet, így például használható lehet a dezoxiribonukleinsav és a ribonukleinsav analízisére, gyors komplett rezisztencia meghatározására és más proteomikai alkalmazásokra is. A közlemény rövid áttekintést kíván adni ennek az új technikának a klinikai mikrobiológiai diagnosztikában való jelenlegi alkalmazhatóságáról. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(38), 1495–1503.

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Sixty-eight Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains were isolated from porcine acute pleuropneumonia cases from different parts of Hungary between 2000 and 2014. A total of 41 isolates were identified as A. pleuropneumoniae bio-type I and 27 strains as biotype II based on cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate metabolic fingerprinting in the species-level identification of A. pleuropneumoniae isolates. Utilisation of carbon sources by these field isolates and six reference strains was characterised by the Biolog system (GN2 Microplate, MicroLog3 Version 4.20.05 software). Twenty-nine field strains were correctly identified by the Biolog system as A. pleuropneumoniae, 36 strains as A. lignieresii, two strains as H. paraphrohaemolyticus and one strain as A. equuli after 24 h of incubation. Among the six A. pleuropneumoniae reference strains the Biolog system identified one strain as A. pleuropneumoniae, four as A. lignieresii and one as H. paraphrohaemolyticus. There was no correlation between biotypes and serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae and the carbon source utilisation pattern and species identification by the Biolog system. our data indicate that the efficacy of the Biolog system used here could be improved by including phenotypes of more A. pleuropneumoniae strains representing a wider geographical occurrence into the database.

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Abstract

Introduction

Chronic sinusitis caused by anaerobes is a particular concern clinically, because many of the complications are associated with infections caused by these organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of anaerobic bacteria in chronic sinusitis in adults as a part of a prospective microbiological study.

Materials and methods

Over a one-year period, aspirations of maxillary sinus secretions and/or ethmoid cavities were derived in n = 79 adult patients with chronic sinusitis by endoscopy in a tertiary-care teaching hospital in Hungary. The qualitative and quantitative compositions of the total cultivable aerobic and anaerobic bacterial and fungal flora cultured on the samples were compared. Correct anaerobic species level identifications were carried out according to standard methods.

Results

Bacteria were recovered for all of the 79 aspirates and the numbers of the significant cultured isolates (with colony forming units ≥103) were between 1 and 10. A total of 206 isolates, 106 anaerobic and 100 aerobic or facultative-anaerobic strains were isolated. The most common aerobic bacteria were Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 40), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 29), Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 6), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 7) and Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 6). The anaerobic bacteria included black-pigmented Prevotella spp. and Porphyromonas spp. (n = 27), Actinomyces spp. (n = 13), Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (n = 16), Fusobacterium spp. (n = 19) and Cutibacterium acnes (n = 8).

Conclusions

This study illustrates the microbial dynamics in which anaerobic and aerobic bacteria prevail and highlights the importance of obtaining cultures from patients with chronic sinusitis for guidance in selection of proper antimicrobial therapy.

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The presence of the vanA gene was determined in enterococci from healthy poultry, originating from the Hungarian resistance monitoring system between 2001 and 2004. Enterococci (n = 562) were collected from intestinal samples of slaughtered broiler chickens. The presence of van genes was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) strains carried only the vanA gene. Genus- and species-level identification of the vanA gene carrier strains was carried out by PCR using specific primers. In 2001, 25 out of the 289 isolated strains (8.6%) were vanA carriers (1 Enterococcus mundtii , 13 E. durans and 11 E. faecium ). In 2002 (n = 87), 20 (23%) strains were vanA positive (11 E. durans and 9 E. faecium ). In 2003 and 2004, none of the strains (n = 95 and 91, respectively) were positive for the most common van genes. In 2003, there was only one strain for which higher minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of vancomycin (4 mg/L) and teicoplanin (8 mg/L) were found. In 2004 there were three strains for which the MIC of vancomycin was 8 mg/L, and 2 strains and 1 strain with teicoplanin MICs of 4 mg/L and 8 mg/L, respectively. The potential similarity of these strains was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The VRE strains were not closely related to one another. The annual data of vancomycin resistance indicate an association between the recovery of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and the use of avoparcin in animal feeds. This study indicates that with the reduced use of antibiotics in food animals, it is possible to decrease the rate of resistant bacteria. Although the use of avoparcin had been banned in 1998, the VRE strains disappeared only five years later.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Nurver Ulger Toprak, Alida C. M. Veloo, Edit Urban, Ingrid Wybo, Helene Jean-Pierre, Trefor Morris, Ulrik Stenz Justesen, Vesna Tripkovic, Samo Jeverica, Guner Soyletir, Elisabeth Nagy, and on behalf of the ESCMID Study Group for Anaerobic Infections (ESGAI)

during the collection of the strains. Species-level identification by the MALDI Biotyper was accepted if the log score was ≥2.000 and genus-level identification if the log score was between >1.700 and <2.000. Only isolates with correct genus

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Piotr Szweda, Katarzyna Gucwa, Lukasz Naumiuk, Ewa Romanowska, Katarzyna Dzierzanowska-Fangrat, Anna Brillowska-Dabrowska, Iwona Wojciechowska-Koszko, and Slawomir Milewski

.: Species level identification and antifungal susceptibility of yeasts isolated from various clinical specimens and evaluation of Integral System Yeasts Plus. New Microbiol 35 , 327–334 (2012). Tuksavul F

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Károly Péter Sárvári, József Sóki, Miklós Iván, Cecilia Miszti, Krisztina Latkóczy, Szilvia Zsóka Melegh, and Edit Urbán

(Gram-stained smear) may provide information about the bacteria at genus or species level [ 4, 7 ]. For species-level identification, commercial biochemical tests are available detecting either preformed enzymes under aerobic environment or inducible

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87 Nguyen, J. and Russel, S. C. (2010): Targeted proteomics approach to species-level identification of Bacillus thuringiensis spores by AP-MALDI-MS. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spect. 21, 993

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time (12 years). At the time of submission, there was no report in the literature describing the prevalence of Pantoea in Hungary. Clinical microbiology laboratories have pivotal roles in performing species-level identifications and in aiding

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, the economic considerations required for anaerobic diagnosis and the lack of suitably qualified specialists, species-level identification, antibiotic susceptibility testing and typing of anaerobes were mainly performed in reference laboratories [ 4

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