1968 ; and Wheelock’s useful summary ( 1982 ) on the topic). Éva Pócs made use of the various speechacts and used the theory as the organising principle when creating the typology of Hungarian verbal charms (even if she was not directly inspired to do
Differences between some sentences in the German original of 1981 and their English translation of 1984 were found in Volume 1 of Habermas’s magnum opus. It turned out to be an accurate self-correction by Habermas, which created there a concise summary of the teleological aspects of his speech act theory. This increased the linguistic devotion of his argument, but weakened the practical, societal influence of his theory of communicative action. Some other topics within the voluminous secondary literature on Habermas are also touched: the meaning spectrum of the key term ‘
’ (‘Understanding’), problems around the validity claims, and the formal, procedural character of his theory, i.e. the lack of substantive, causal factors. The latter traits and behind them Habermas’s close connection with the dominant philosophical trend of the ‘linguistic turn’ (Rorty 1967) are supposed to have led to the fact that Habermas’s theory has failed to redeem possible hopes about social awakening effects in the late 20th century. Yet, Habermas’s life-work has epochal significance. Besides complementing the ‘paradigm of production’ with the one of communicative interaction, deepening the concept of modern democracy, highlighting the significance of interpersonal social connections through the elaboration of the ‘lifeworld’ concept, Habermas’s work in providing theoretical foundations to understand the age of modernity is of key importance. Through analyzing ‘the unfinished project of modernity, of the Enlightenment’, whose contemporary defects ‘can only be made good by further enlightenment’, Habermas sums up the very essence of our age of globalization, of capitalism. He provides a program for all social scientific workshops still following the paradigm of historical progress and working for a developed, humane and democratic society, but sometimes being on the defensive today. The extension and supplementation of Habermas’s theory of modernity, with a ‘social turn’ (Roderick 1986) and a ‘causal turn’ is being proposed.
The present paper examines the problems of learning imperative speech acts in the process of acquiring Russian as a foreign language. This question is discussed to show the difference between the linguistic and lingvodidactic approach to these linguistic phenomena. The lack of a methodological interpretation of the problem and the need for such an analysis are emphasized, focussing on a psycholinguistic rather than linguistic approach to the actual circumstances of second language acquisition.
The paper addresses the issue of the posthumous legacies of the two main Russian Avant-Garde revolutionary poets Vladimir
Mayakovsky and Velemir Khlebnikov and draws largely on the memoir accounts available in this regard. The essay examines the
pragmatics of operation of the post-Futurist public scandal which contributed to establishing/undermining the “symbolic value”
of each poet’s debated legacy. The paper brings into discussion various methods of cultural analysis that include Bourdieu’s
notion of symbolic capital, theory of speech-acts and different apprehensions of public memory. Some inconsistencies in the
strategic maneuvering of each author are brought into attention, dwelling upon the possible reasoning for their respective
successes and failures. The complex issues that may be seen responsible for this process are analyzed in the essay along with
additional Russian avant-garde figures who exploited the same pragmatics of performing practices.
Morphopragmatics is defined as the relationship between morphology and pragmatics, in other words, it investigates pragmatic aspects of patterns created by morphological rules. The paper discusses three morphopragmatic phenomena in Hungarian. The first one concerns the use of the excessive which does not add semantic information to the superlative and carries purely pragmatic information. It is used to express the highest possible degree of some property and it carries the conversational implicature that the speaker wants to draw the listener's attention to the importance of what he is saying. The second problem discussed has to do with the pragmatics of the diminutive suffix. The semantic meaning of the diminutive suffix is `small' or `a little' (the latter occurs with mass nouns), which, however, is often overridden by the pragmatic meaning. In most cases, the use of the diminutive signals a positive emotional attitude, but it may carry a pejorative meaning, too. Finally, the third phenomenon concerns the pragmatics of the possibility suffix -hat/-het. From among the various pragmatic meanings the deontic speech acts are well known from other languages. There are, however, several other uses which seem to be typical of Hungarian. Two of these are particularly interesting: (a) the context may turn possibility into necessity, (b) the verb mond `say, tell' suffixed by the possibility suffix may carry the pragmatic meaning `say/tell in vain'. In addition to these two uses, several others will be discussed.
Summary Visual images do have a constitutive role in the formation of culture and as a consequence in rendering cultural stereotypes. Since the communication by ways of pictures became prevalent and overwhelming with the easy distribution of pictures by “mechanical reproduction' (W. Benjamin), it is important to be aware of the nature of images and their relationship to verbal signs. I do share W. J. T. Mitchell's idea that “speech-acts are not medium specific', thus pictures just like words do possess semiotic power; that is they do take part in meaning-making (Bal), as well as in the production and the maintenance of culture, cultural identity and cultural memory. The importance of this recognition lies in the fact that Man is not only the producer, but also the product of culture; since this production is not exclusively linguistically based. Therefore, this paper aims at the examination of the relation of visual images and a text in the transmission of Hungarian stereotypes. I intend to carry out this in a medium that traditionally belongs to the category of “popular culture', yet its status was highly controversial in the time of its production in Hungary. This visual medium is that of the panorama, and the object of my query is Árpád Feszty's famous panorama, entitled “The arrival of the Magyars'. The painting carries its importance in many respects: it is not only an ideal and idealised “representation' of the settling of Hungarian tribes, but more importantly the veiled illustration of Mór Jókai's drama entitled Levente. My paper thus raises questions of the relation of the visual and verbal, of popular and high culture, and of the influence of national identity through verbal and visual imagery.