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Authors: Elham Mostafaei, Saeid Zehtab-Salmasi, Yahya Salehi-Lisar and Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani

. , Basu , S. , Sengupta , D. N. ( 2011 ) Amelioration of salinity stress by exogenously applied spermidine or spermine in three varieties of indica rice differing in their level of salt tolerance . J. Plant Physiol. 168 , 317 – 328

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abundant PAs in plants including diamine putrescine (Put), triamine spermidine (Spd), and tetraamine spermine (Spm) are small ubiquitous polycationic nitrogenous compounds, which are present in the free forms, soluble conjugated to small molecules, and

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. Mattoo , A.K. , Sobolev , A.P. , Neelam , A. , Goyal , R.K. , Handa , A.K. , Segre , A.L. 2006 . Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabolite profiling of transgenic tomato fruit engineered to accumulate spermidine and

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4484 de Agazio, M., Federico, R., Angelini, R., De Cesare, F., Grego, S. (1992) Spermidine pretreatment or root tip removal in maize seedlings: effect on K + uptake and tissue

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3,4-[ 14 C-methionine] into spermidine in aged orange peel discs. Plant Physiol. 69: 385–388. Goren R. Inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis by aminoethoxyvinylglycine and by

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., Kang, Y. (2008) Exogenous spermidine affects polyamine metabolism in salinity-stressed Cucumis sativus roots and enhances short-term salinity tolerance. J. Plant Physiology 165, 1620–1635. Kang Y

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. Duan , J.J. , Li , J. , Guo , S. , Kang , Y. 2008 . Exogenous spermidine affects polyamine metabolism in salinitystressed Cucumis sativus roots and enhances short-term salinity . J. Plant Physiol. 165 : 1620 – 1635

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The biologically active amines of grapes, aszú-grapes, aszú-wines of Tokaj region were analysed to study the effect of Botrytis cinerea on the grapes. It was established that grapes contained mainly spermidine, putrescine and spermine, however, in the aszú-grapes new amine compounds such as agmatine, phenethylamine, butylamine and pentylamine isomers appeared. The spermine content showed an increase in all aszú-grape varieties compared to the grapes. During winemaking processes, spermine disappeared and the concentration of tyramine increased in the aszú-wines. The concentration of spermidine decreased during the ageing of the product. The ratio of tyramine and amine content of the samples were found to be within a limited interval.

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Morphological and biochemical changes in plant cells are known as important events for adaptation to stress. In this study, in Ctenanthe setosa leaves to which polyamines were applied during drought stress, changes in the activity of peroxidase, reducing sugar, proline and soluble protein levels were investigated. The three common polyamines, putrescine, spermidine and spermine were exogenously treated through the leaves. The polyamines were sprayed onto the leaves at 5×10−5 M. In the leaves to which polyamines were applied the peroxidase activity decreased, soluble protein increased. Also, it was determined that putrescine and spermidine caused an increase in the amount of proline and in reducing sugar. However, increase was not observed in the leaves to which spermine was applied. In addition, we observed an increase in the activity of peroxidase, proline and reducing sugar levels, and a decrease in soluble protein level in the control ones and the leaves to which polyamines were applied during drought stress. As a result, the effect of polyamine on leaf rolling may be explained through the contribution to osmotic adjustment of the increase in proline, reducing sugar and soluble protein contents.

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Authors: D. Szegő, I. Lőrincz, V. Soós, E. Páldi, T. Visnovitz, Z. Bratek, D. Lásztity, Z. Szigeti and I. Rácz

The work was aimed at investigating short-term metabolic changes caused by S-methylmethionine (SMM) and at clarifying the gene expression background of these changes in order to gain a better understanding of the protective effect of SMM against stress. When examining the expression of genes coding for the enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of polyamines, which play an important role in responses to low temperature stress, and that of the C-repeat binding transcription factor (CBF1) gene, it was found that both SMM and cold treatment increased the expression of genes responsible for the polyamine synthesis pathway starting from arginine. It caused only a slight increase when applied alone, but when SMM pre-treatment was followed by cold stress, it resulted in a considerable extent of up-regulation. SMM caused a similar increase in the expression of CBF1. The changes in the expression of genes responsible for the polyamine synthesis were clearly reflected in changes in the putrescine and agmatine contents, while the greater increase in the spermidine content was indicative of the role of SMM as a direct precursor in spermidine biosynthesis. The results demonstrated that, in addition to its direct effect on the sulphur metabolism and on polyamine biosynthesis, the protective effect of exogenous SMM was chiefly manifested in its influence on the expression of genes responsible for the biosynthesis of the polyamines important for stress responses and on the CBF1 transcription factor gene that acts as a regulator in cold stress.

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