Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 254 items for :

  • "stereotypization" x
Clear All

Schneider , David J. 2005: The Psychology of Stereotyping . New York, Guilford Press. Schneider D. J. The Psychology of Stereotyping 2005 Socioklub 2008: Zmapování

Restricted access

Summary The objective of the paper is to investigate the role of stereotypes in the interpretation of literary genres in general and in the interpretation of autobiographies in particular. It aims to do so, first, from a theoretical aspect, considering the various concepts available concerning the genre of autobiography and, second, with the help of the specific analyses of individual literary works, with special emphasis on Péter Esterházy's Celestial Harmonies. According to the theoretical premise of the study, it is only in relation to stereotypes responsible for precursory anticipations in the readers that a new literary piece is able to debunk and re-create the concepts of text creation and reception. In this sense, stereotypy is one of the factors that guarantee the continuity of literature through its intermittent and cyclic quality.

Restricted access

Kroatische kulturelle Stereotype

Dissemination der Nation

Author: Dubravka Tolić

Zusammenfassung  

Der Artikel betrachtet die kulturellen Stereotype im Rahmen der Diskurstheorie: als methodologisch fruchtbare vesteinerte imagologische Identitätskonstrukte über sich selbst (Autostereotype) oder den Anderen (Heterostereotype). Moderne Identitäten (nationale, Gender-, Klassen-, Rassen-, Zivilisationsidentitäten) sind in einem stark monologischen Diskurs durchImaginieren — Totalisieren — Naturalisieren — Generalisieren — Diskriminieren — Industrialisieren — Dominieren des Eigenen entstanden. Im Rahmen dieser generellen Identitätsbildung befasst sich der Beitrag mit einer spezifischen Erscheinung: der Dissemination der Nation (Dissemination im Derridaschen Sinne), also einer Unmöglichkeit, einen stabilen und einheitlichen Identitätsdiskurs zu schaffen. Als Paradebeispiel wird die Dissemination der modernen kroatischen Nation untersucht. Im 19. Jahrhundert schuf die kroatische Kultur zwei Ideologien und mit ihnen verbunden zwei Imagologien-Stereotype:Kroatozentrismus (in der Politik A. Starčević, in der Literatur A. G. Matoš) undSüdslawentum (in der Politik J. J. Strossmayer, in der Literatur Miroslav Krleža). Das Schicksal der modernen kroatischen Nation ist eine ständige, unabgeschlossene und nicht enden wollende Dissemination dieser zwei Ideen und ihrer symbolischen Welten. Die Schwankungen zwischen diesen zwei Ideologien, dem Kroatozentrismus und dem Südslawentum, und den mit ihnen verbundenen Imagologien und Stereotypen, verhinderten die Bildung einer stabilen nationalen Identität und verschoben die Schaffung eines selbständigen Nationalstaates an das Ende des 20. Jahrhunderts.

Restricted access

Sick Humor Cycles and Stereotypes . Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press. Dundes A. Cracking Jokes: Studies of Sick Humor Cycles and Stereotypes 1987 Esar

Restricted access

Summary This paper explores the specific relation of ambiguity with the other Slavic peoples, reflected in some concrete works from Macedonian literature. First of all, it gives some details, analyses and thoughts about the enigma of Slavic Unity, or the philological concept, or whatever it is. The paper constitutes an effort to demonstrate that in Macedonian culture there is a controversial attitude towards the concept of Slavism, and that the stereotypes connected with it give material to speak about the tendency of re-evaluation of this idea, from the level of cultural community to the level of absolute diversity. The stereotypes of the other Slavic peoples show two opposite tensions: first, they show the close, familiar and friendly approach, and from the other side, they confirm that there is strong ironical and critical, even phobic position. The topics of the discussion are drawn from The Enigmatic Concept of Slavism, The Image of the Russian and Ukrainian Immigrant in the Macedonian Novel and The Stereotype of the Slavic Woman. Those topics are discussed in the examples drawn from contemporary Macedonian literature, or more precisely in the following works: the drama The Slavic Coffin (1996) by Venko Andonovski, and the novels Aquamarin (2004) by Tanja Urosevik, The Wife of the Whiteguard (2001) by Srbo Ivanovski, and Prostate Juice (1990) by Jovan Pavlovski. The conclusion of the paper is that the Slavism as historical and philological cultural community should be evaluated only with a comprehensive understanding of the diversity of many various national identities.

Restricted access

For Udmurtians, physical beauty is an attractive and impressive physique. In the late 19th century, Udmurt criteria for evaluating physical beauty were influenced by the aesthetic ideals of neighbouring peoples. A beautiful girl was supposed to have Slavic or Turkic features but not Udmurt ones. Northern Udmurts believed that an attractive young woman was faircomplexioned with fair hair and blue eyes, while southern Udmurts admired women with dark hair and black eyes. One can still hear them saying, “She is so beautiful, she doesn’t look like an Udmurt girl at all,” which is followed by more precise information, such as, “She looks like a Russian/Tatar woman.” This stereotype still exists among the Udmurts and their neighbouring peoples, especially the Russians.

Restricted access

Summary The focus of this essay is on ethnic stereotypes that emerge in particular areas of group identities, as ideological products articulated through collective representation. The fervid exchange of stereotypes between Western and Eastern Europe has its sources in specific contexts: the two distinct “Europes', historically divided by unstable borders and the purportedly peripheral status and socio-economic belatedness of the latter. Due to the frequent journeys of the Occidentals to the European “Far East', Western stereotypes have been set swiftly by widely circulated texts. The cultural stereotypes I am pointing to - crafted in Romania, a liminal area of Eastern Europe - should mostly be identified as a response to these. The polar stereotypes of the “Happy Good Savage' and the “Pitiful Westerner' represented as such in an insightful series of literary texts, have an interesting prehistory dating back to mid-nineteen century, when Romanian intellectuals educated in Western Europe started building a modern national identity. In their birthplace, these polar stereotypes have constantly been evaluated on rhetorical, ontological and moral grounds. My analysis of both fictitious and non-fictitious texts (novels, travelogues, essays) clearly follows and underlines these levels of stereotyping.

Restricted access

Summary Initially, the paper “Ethnic Stereotypes in the Macedonian Folklore and their Reflection in the Macedonian Contemporary Literature' is focusing on the ethnic stereotypes in folklore, knowing that it often reflects the historical reality in a fuller, more penetrating way than the other sources. In the Macedonian folklore, the positive image and the epic glorification of the Macedonian heroes are opposed to the manifested negative judgments about Others (mostly Turks and Arabs), often based upon ethnic stereotypes. The treatment of the motifs and the characters in them are quite typicalized and even overproportioned by frequent usage of hyperbolas and contrasts. The paper presents Bolen Dojcin and Marko Krale as typical heroes whose images succumb to stereotyping and the Crna Arapina as the perfect depiction of their enemy. These folklore images and stereotypes have significant implications and reflections in the Macedonian contemporary literature, especially in the poetry, so in the major part of the paper it deals mostly with these expressions. One of the main reasons for the usage of these “old-fashioned' stereotypes is to provoke familiar images in the people's minds (both good and evil), and to use this touch of the tradition as a base for the new ideas and poetry innovations. This paper pursues their transformations in the contemporary poetry of a few Macedonian authors, such as Blaze Koneski, Vlada Urosevic, Radovan Pavlovski and others. We read their poetry as intertext, namely as restoration and resemantisation of the traditional oral poetry, and we follow up the modifications done in their composition, versification and basic poetry idea. Apart from the poetry, these images and stereotypes taken from the Macedonian folklore can be noted in the other genres of the Macedonian contemporary literature, who enclose rereading of the ethnic stereotypes, upgrading of mythical fables, unconventional, unconditional and often very complexed usage of the folklore elements, symbols, myths or motifs. The paper leads to the conclusion that Macedonian folklore accumulates knowledge and image of the Other, but at the same time abounds with ethnical stereotypes. In the text, they were viewed through their manifestations and their alterations mainly in contemporary Macedonian poetry, through a number of paradigms and poetic concepts, highlighting their ability to make use of the spirit of the tradition as fundamentals for the fresh ideas and expressive innovations.

Restricted access

Summary Visual images do have a constitutive role in the formation of culture and as a consequence in rendering cultural stereotypes. Since the communication by ways of pictures became prevalent and overwhelming with the easy distribution of pictures by “mechanical reproduction' (W. Benjamin), it is important to be aware of the nature of images and their relationship to verbal signs. I do share W. J. T. Mitchell's idea that “speech-acts are not medium specific', thus pictures just like words do possess semiotic power; that is they do take part in meaning-making (Bal), as well as in the production and the maintenance of culture, cultural identity and cultural memory. The importance of this recognition lies in the fact that Man is not only the producer, but also the product of culture; since this production is not exclusively linguistically based. Therefore, this paper aims at the examination of the relation of visual images and a text in the transmission of Hungarian stereotypes. I intend to carry out this in a medium that traditionally belongs to the category of “popular culture', yet its status was highly controversial in the time of its production in Hungary. This visual medium is that of the panorama, and the object of my query is Árpád Feszty's famous panorama, entitled “The arrival of the Magyars'. The painting carries its importance in many respects: it is not only an ideal and idealised “representation' of the settling of Hungarian tribes, but more importantly the veiled illustration of Mór Jókai's drama entitled Levente. My paper thus raises questions of the relation of the visual and verbal, of popular and high culture, and of the influence of national identity through verbal and visual imagery.

Restricted access
Authors: Ilona Csörsz, Katalin Szili, Ágnes Devecsery, János Máth and Márta Csabai

A betegségekkel kapcsolatos szakmai és laikus vélemények alakulása nem független a kulturális és társas hatások közvetítette nézetrendszerektől, sztereotípiáktól. Kutatásunk során azt vizsgáltuk, hogy a nemi sztereotípiák miként jelennek meg a tünetértelmezésben orvos- és pszichológushallgatóknál. Mivel a reprezentációk nem közvetlenül fejtik ki hatásukat, direkt módszerekkel kevéssé vizsgálhatók, feltárásukra így projektív technikát alkalmaztunk. Egy szépirodalmi betegség-elbeszélést használtunk projekciós felületként, melynek az eredeti, női főszereplővel (nőbeteggel) játszódó változatát létrehoztuk férfi protagonistával is. A kétféle verzió értékeléséhez kérdőívet szerkesztettünk, melyet 313 pszichológus- és orvostanhallgatóval vettünk fel, és a szöveges válaszok tartalmi kategóriáinak kvantitatív és kvalitatív elemzésével értékeltünk. Megállapítottuk, hogy a hiányos tünetbemutatást tartalmazó történet intenzívebben mozgósította a nőbeteggel kapcsolatos reprezentációkat. A tünetre és a női történetre szomatizációs mechanizmusokat vetítettek a válaszadók. A férfi beteget egysíkúbban jellemezték, tüneteit stresszel és rizikóviselkedésekkel magyarázták. A válaszadók neme sokkal jelentősebb tényező volt, mint a válaszadók szakja. Kutatásunk felhívja a figyelmet arra, hogy a nemi sztereotípiák a diagnózisalkotást is befolyásolhatják, és ezt a hatást erősítheti a tünetek hiányos vagy diffúz prezentációja.

Restricted access