This paper seeks to reconstruct some of the characteristics of Hipponax as storyteller, drawing on the insights of narrative theory. It pays particular attention to the implied audience(s) of the poems, to the characterization of the narrator and the relation of narrator to author, to narrative time and to the role of repetition.
Sheridan Le Fanu was an Irish writer in the Gothic tradition, an innovator of the genre of the supernatural tale, and master
story-teller, whose use of language we examine here; his use of the core linguistic features of words, syntax and sounds for
literary expression and his use of narrative and dialogue and of the registers (speech and written styles) and dialects of
his speech community for a sense of realism and authenticity. We also examine the difference between written and the spoken
language, and the way Le Fanu imparted to the written word the features of the Irish oral story-telling tradition.
Evolutionary approaches to literature can take one of two directions. One is to ask what functions story-telling serves. The second is to ask what role cognitive mechanisms play in the production of story-telling. I argue that story-telling evolved as part of the group-bonding processes that are concerned primarily with limiting the freedom of movement of freeriders within society. I then examine the extent to which stories reflect the author's intuitive grasp of the evolutionary principles that underpin human behaviour. Finally, I examine the extent to which human social cognitive capacities constrain both audience and composer in the production of stories. I argue that, to be successful, story-tellers have to work at cognitive levels beyond the norm for adult humans, and this may explain why good story-tellers are rare even though the ability to appreciate stories is universal. I suggest that an author's success may be determined both by his/her intuitive understanding of the evolutionary factors that ultimately drive human behaviour and by the extent to which he/she is able to work at the cognitive limits of the target audience.
Musical Instruments]. Kyzyl: TNIYaLI.
Tuvinskie traditsionnye muzykal'nye instrumenty
VAN DEUSEN, Kira 2003: Singing Story Healing Drum : Shamans and Storytellers of Turkic Siberia. Montreal: McGill-Queens University
The expression xuuč yaria can be translated as ‘story’ or ‘gossip’, and indeed, they are short stories about interesting, extraordinary or sometimes fearful events heard or seen by the storyteller. As far as their content is concerned, the stories are colourful and ramifying, and it is beyond doubt that the xuuč yaria has some connections with domogs, tales and even heroic epics. Unfortunately, research into this field has begun relatively recently, so these connections are far from being clear. Moreover, the xuuč yaria stories are interesting not only from the point of view of folklore, but they also shed light on the history of ideas, since the first ones were collected in the 1950s, and thus some of them reflect the political atmosphere of the socialist era. In this article an attempt is made to give the broader outlines of the xuuč yaria as a genre of Mongolian folklore, and establish a typology in the hope that it will be helpful for further research.
The Russian fairy tale has endured centuries of evolution. It was part of an oral tradition and as such, none of its details were static. A single story was told by generations of storytellers over a period of centuries. In this way, the tale is layered with beliefs and customs from many periods reaching far back to the pre-Christian, matriarchal times. While weakness and submissiveness are the preferred qualities of Russian folk heroines, many tales portray women of strength. The introduction of Christianity to 10th-century Russia extinguished there a strong matriarchal tradition. Matriarchal cultures are traditionally linked with mysti-cism and magic. Given the hypothesis of an early Russian matriarchy, the paper traces magi-cal figures like Baba Yaga and her sisters back to a time when there was no need to portray them as evil. It is only after the priests come that she was cast out and labeled evil. The Rus-sian fairy tale may appear to be vague, repetitious and hard on women, yet when these quali-ties are added together a magical transformation occurs that brings out lively and simplisti-cally beautiful images that give the tales that special Russian flavour.