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After the transformation process and privatisation a rather specific dual structure has been formed in the Hungarian food industry: large food industrial enterprises, dominantly in foreign ownership, fulfilling locally the global strategy of the international firm, and micro - and small - scale firms in domestic ownership. The strategic behaviour of Hungarian food industrial firms have been examined by direct-question surveys and interviews. Based on enterprise- and business-level strategy theories, the objective was to create a taxonomy of strategic patterns of Hungarian food industrial firms. On basis of investigations four characteristic groups of small and medium scale enterprises could be separated from each other. The high cost of technology development, the uneven quality and quantity of agricultural raw material, the concentration of food trade organisations are important hindrance factors of development of food industrial enterprises. The small and medium scale enterprises consider the activity of chambers of producers as an important tool in improving their economic position. In opinion of food industrial entrepreneurs the most important factor of success in privatisation was the knowledge of legal loops and good social network. Under these conditions, the promotion of preparation of newly formed small and medium scale enterprises to meet the demands of EU joining is a necessary precondition of success. The multinational food industrial enterprises forming four groups follow diversified strategies. This variability of multinational firms increases the flexibility and competitiveness of the Hungarian food industry.

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There is a considerable discrepancy between official rhetoric and reality in the Hungarian higher education system. Based on a series of personal interviews conducted with the actors of Hungarian higher education, this article offers an analysis of the positions and strategies of the key players. Using the Matrix of Alliances and Conflicts: Tactics, Objectives and Recommendations (MACTOR) method, the actors of the higher education system are analysed in terms of direct and indirect reciprocal influences, and their positions with regard to a generic set of possible objectives. It is argued that there is an urgent need for concentrating resources and for re-defining the higher education strategy based on the long-term demands of a globalising world.

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informing strategic planning; and (ii) to assess research performance at individual and departmental levels, in order to optimize funding allocations. The system proposed has so far been used by six Italian universities. 2 The following section

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technological development relies on prior technology (patent references). From that point, Saudi Arabia's current long-term strategic plan to develop a scientific base for a knowledge-based industry is well aligned to the current contexts of Saudi Arabia

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technological fields to seize the current stage of technology development; and (3) help us grasp the relative advantage of foresight issues development in Taiwan and the world and develop profound strategic planning in accordance with the concept of Revealed

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Abstract  

In this paper, we show a “Strategic Diagram” of the robot technology by applying the co-word analysis to the metadata of Korean related national R&D projects in 2001. The strategic diagram shows the evolutionary trends of the specific R&D domain and relational patterns between subdomains. We may use this strategic diagram to support both the strategic planning and the R&D Program.

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Knowledge diffusion is the adaptation of knowledge in a broad range of scientific and engineering research and development. Tracing knowledge diffusion between science and technology is a challenging issue due to the complexity of identifying emerging patterns in a diverse range of possible processes. In this article, we describe an approach that combines complex network theory, network visualization, and patent citation analysis in order to improve the means for the study of knowledge diffusion. In particular, we analyze patent citations in the field of tissue engineering. We emphasize that this is the beginning of a longer-term endeavor that aims to develop and deploy effective, progressive, and explanatory visualization techniques for us to capture the dynamics of the evolution of patent citation networks. The work has practical implications on resource allocation, strategic planning, and science policy.

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“Social futuring” is a neologism that locates a new meaning. The paper aims to frame and interpret this new meaning of/reference to social futuring in comparison to preexisting, conceptually related terms: resilience (optimism), future proofing, and future orientation. These are singled out as key concepts of individual prosperity, the future orientation of society and culture, and strategic planning (especially technological planning). Also, they provide fine examples of the semantic category elements that also appear in the interpretation of social futuring: a) change, and b) attitudes to change, c) vision as a condition, d) entity/agency (individual, social or cultural level, or of an instrumental type), and e) (motivated/strategic) action. Through systematic comparison, the characterizing differences and similarities can be drawn out and exhibited to prove the unique nature and relevance of social futuring in academic and professional discourses.

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Szingapúr, amely független államisága 50. évfordulójához közeledik 2015-ben, különleges példaként szolgál arra, miként lehet viszonylag rövid időszak alatt olyan társadalmi-gazdasági előrehaladást elérni, amelynek révén fejlődőből magasan fejlett gazdaság jön létre a lakosság megemelt jóléte mellett. A tanulmány, miközben végigköveti a társadalmi, politikai és gazdasági fejlődést az ötvenes évek közepének függetlenségi harcától egészen máig, rá kíván világítani a társadalom és a gazdaság jelen állapotához elvezető folyamatra, illetve annak gyökereire. A kormányzat középtávú stratégiai tervezésben megnyilvánuló aktív, átlátható szerepvállalása az infrastruktúra és az oktatás fejlesztésében vagy az innováció előmozdításában éppúgy vizsgálat tárgyát képezi, mint a sajátos kulturális hagyományok, értékek kérdésköre.

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Community Ecology
Authors: T. Standovár, F. Szmorad, B. Kovács, K. Kelemen, M. Plattner, T. Roth and Zs. Pataki

A new forest state assessment methodology to complement existing conservation and forestry data has been developed. The aim is to provide tools for strategic planning including spatial distribution of conservation priorities. The method is point-based using a dense systematic sampling grid and provides more detailed information than vegetation maps or forest subcompartment descriptions, but requires less effort than forest inventories. Indicators include canopy composition and structure, deadwood, herbs, microhabitats, disturbances, shrubs and regeneration. The results can inform managers about the structural and compositional diversity of forest stands in the form of thematic maps and can provide the basis for analysis of habitat suitability for forest-dwelling organisms. A smartphone application has been developed to enable electronic data collection. PostGIS and Python scripts were used in the data flow. In this paper, we outline the development of the assessment protocol, and present the sampling design and the variables recorded. The main advantages of the survey methodology are also shown by case-studies based on data collected during the first field season in 2014. The protocol has been designed for low mountain forests in Hungary, but it can be modified to fit other forest types.

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