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An incubation experiment was set up to investigate the effects of NPK fertilizers, wheat straw and food waste compost in combination with Phylazonit MC biofertilizer on the changes in 0.01 M CaCl 2 extractable nitrogen forms (NO 3 + -N, NH 4 + -N, organic-N fraction) of three types of soils. The quantities and changes in CaCl 2 -NH 4 + -N mainly depended on the adsorption capacity of soils. Higher CaCl 2 extractable NH 4 + -N values were measured in the calcareous chernozem and sandy soil with the application of NPK treatment, while in case of the chernozem soil with loamy texture no significant differences were found between the NPK and control treatments. NH 4 + immobilization appeared in pots given straw treatment. The quantity of CaCl 2 -NH 4 + -N changed within the incubation period, the direction and extent of the change were dependent of the production rates and consumption processes. In all soils the 0.01 M CaCl 2 extractable NO 3 - -N was the largest pool for plant nutrition. The highest CaCl 2 -NO 3 - -N values were found in pots given NPK and combined NPK+straw treatments, while the lowest values were measured in straw-treated pots. Wheat straw, with higher C/N ratio caused a temporary immobilization, followed by remineralization. Food waste compost, with lower C/N ratio, proved to have a good N supplying capacity. The contrasted effect of straw and compost was more conspicuous in sandy soil, in which the original NO 3 - -N content was the lowest. Higher CaCl 2 -organic N values were measured for pots treated with straw and with compost, as compared to the control. During the incubation period the amount of soluble organic-N changed, the direction and extent of the change depended on the soil type and treatments. The effect of Phylazonit MC was on the quantity of CaCl 2 extractable N fractions was not really expressed, and the significancy of the effect varied and was dependent of the soil type. Biofertilizer amendment increased the extractable NO 3 - -N in sandy soil, decreased the negative effect of wheat straw, and it also might help in decomposing wheat straw and food waste compost. The application of Phylazonit MC in the calcareous chernozem caused a significantly higher amount of organic-N, especially in straw-treated pots.

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Ali, S. H., Asghar, S. M., Shabbir, A. U. (1991): Neutral sulphite pulping of wheat straw. Tappi Pulping Conference Proceedings , Tappi Press, Atlanta, GA. p. 51

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. , Ransom , J. , Wiersma , J. 2016 . Harvest index and straw yield of five classes of wheat . Biomass and Bioenergy 85 : 223 – 227 . Deininger , A. , Tamm , M. , Krause

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Introduction The composites with natural lignocellulosic materials like natural fibres, shivers, straws and wood have recently been intensively investigated due to favourable mechanical properties of such materials and their

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Kim, Y. H., Jung, P. K., Oh, S. J., Ko, M. H. (1991): Effect of soil erosion control with different levels of barley straw mulches. Res. Rep. Rural Develop. Adm., Soil Fert. , 33 , 29–34. Ko M. H

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Chang-Liang Yan, Qi-En Yang, Guang-Bin Zhou, Yun-Peng Hou, Xue-Ming Zhao, Zhi-Qiang Fan, Man-Qing Liu, Lin Liu and Shi-En Zhu

105 Vajta, G., Booth, P. J., Holm, P., Greve, T. and Callesen, H. (1997): Successful vitrification of early stage bovine in vitro produced embryos with the open-pulled straw (OPS) method

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Bali Papp, Á., Somfai, P., Varga, E. and Marosán, M. (2005): Survival of porcine oocytes at germinal vesicle stage after vitrification with open pulled straw method. Reprod. Fert. Dev. 17

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A two-year field experiment with a split-split plot design was conducted to investigate the effects of soil N(0, 120 and 240 kg N·ha−1) and foliar Zn applications at different growth stages (jointing, flowering, early grain filling, and late grain filling) on Zn translocation and utilization efficiency in winter wheat grown on potentially Zn-deficient soil. Our results showed that foliar Zn application at the early grain filling stage significantly increased the Zn concentration in the grain (by 82.9% compared to control) and the Zn utilization efficiency (by 49% compared to jointing). The Zn concentration in the straw consistently increased with the timing of the foliar Zn application and was highest at late grain filling. However, the timing of the Zn application had little effect on Zn uptake in the grain and straw. A high N supply significantly increased the Zn concentration in and uptake by grain and straw, but it had little effect on the efficiency of Zn utilization. Consequently, a foliar Zn application at early grain filling causes Zn to re-translocate into grain from vegetative tissues, resulting in highly nutritional wheat grain. Finally, these practices improved the efficiency of Zn utilization in winter wheat and led to Zn-enriched straw, which may contribute to Zn recycling if it is returned to the field. The results also indicated that N nutrition is a critical factor in both the concentration and translocation of Zn in wheat.

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Abstract  

Straw has the highest concentration of the natural radioisotope40K in comparison with other biofuels and as peat, wood, wood chips, and energy forest, Concentration of40K have been measured in the ash remaining after wheast straw was burnt in a water heating plant. Samples wre also taken of the wheat ears, straw, and surrounding earth. The highest concentration of40K found in the bottom ash was 6000 Bq/kg which is about twenty times higher than the activity concentration of40K in the straw and about ten times higher than the natural40K activity in the ground. Calculations of the maximum ground levels air concentration of40K using the Gaussian plume model give a value of a few hundred Bq/m3. This value is found at a distance of only 100 m from the plant because of the short stack height.

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Abstract  

The pyrolysis of wheat straw has been carried out by means of thermogravimetric analysis in inert atmosphere. The samples were heated over a range of temperatures that includes the entire range of pyrolysis with three different heating rates of 5, 10 and 20 K min−1. The activation energy values as a function of the extent of conversion for the pyrolysis process of wheat straw have been calculated by means of the Flynn–Wall–Ozawa isoconversional method, the Vyazovkin–Sbirrazzuoli isoconversional method and an iterative isoconversional method presented in this article. The results have showed that there are small differences between the activation energy values obtained from the three methods, and the pyrolysis process reveals a dependence of the activation energy on conversion and have indicated the validity of the iterative integral isoconversional method. The effective activation energy for the pyrolysis of wheat straw is 130–175 kJ mol−1 in the conversion range of 0.15–0.85. Furthermore, the prediction of the pyrolysis process under isothermal conditions from the dependence of the activation energy on the extent of conversion has been presented.

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