The stress tolerance responses of two Egyptian cotton cultivars (Giza 45 and 86) exposed to various doses (40, 80, 160 and 320 min) of artificial ultraviolet-A (366 nm) radiation were investigated. The seed germination of Giza 86 was promoted at 40 min, but substantially inhibited at 80 and 160 min and completely suppressed at 320 min. However, the seed germination of Giza 45 was progressively inhibited by UV-A exposure and ceased at 160 min, so doses of 40 and 80 min were selected for further studies. In contrast to seed germination, the seedling growth of Giza 86 was negatively affected at 40 min. UV-A stress induced a great reduction in the leaf carbohydrates as well as in the viability and dry mass production of the shoots of both cultivars, but the response was comparatively higher in Giza 45. It also decreased the chorophyll (Chl) and carotenoid contents, coupled with an increase in the Chl a/b ratio, diminished the Hill reaction activity, and quenched the Chl a fluorescence both in the presence and absence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, suggesting an inhibitory effect on the water-splitting system (donor side) as well as on the electron transport from the primary to the secondary acceptors of PSII (acceptor side). These changes reflect a disturbance in the structure, composition and function of the photosynthetic apparatus as well as the sensitivity of PSII to UV-A stress. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) were markedly damaged by exposure to UV-A for 80 min, while both cultivars developed adaptive mechanisms for damage moderation. These mechanisms involved increasing the levels of flavonoids, total lipids and total soluble proteins as well as having smaller, thicker leaf blades. Since Giza 86 showed a comparatively higher level of adaptation, it tolerates UV-A stress better than Giza 45. Abbreviations: Car, carotenoids; Chl, chlorophyll; DCMU, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea; DCPIP, 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol; DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid; d.m., dry mass; f.m., fresh mass; PSII, photosystem II; RNA, ribonucleic acid; TSP, total soluble proteins; UV-AR, ultraviolet-A (366 nm) radiation.
The location of major QTLs or even genes controlling abiotic stress tolerance is now possible by the application of marker-mediated techniques. This is achieved by exploiting precise genetic stocks, such as doubled haploids (DHs), recombinant substitution lines (RSLs) and recombinant inbred lines (RILs), along with the comprehensive genetic maps now available through the application of molecular marker techniques. These strategies are illustrated here showing how QTLs/genes affecting vernalization response, cold tolerance, osmotic adjustment, osmolite accumulation (free amino acids, polyamines and carbohydrates), salt tolerance and cold-regulated protein accumulation have been identified and located. Also, an example of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for frost tolerance is presented. Major loci and QTLs affecting stress tolerance in Triticeae have been mapped on the group 5 chromosomes, where the highest concentration of abiotic stress-related QTLs (vernalization response, frost tolerance, salt tolerance and osmolite accumulation) was located. A conserved region with a major role in osmotic adjustment has been located on the group 7 chromosomes.
Authors:U. Rosyara, S. Subedi, R. Sharma and E. Duveiller
Khanna-Chopra, R., Viswanathan, C. (1999): Evaluation of heat stresstolerance in irrigated environment of
and related species. I. Stability in yield and yield components.
Authors:P. Czövek, I. Király, E. Páldi, I. Molnár and L. Gáspár
The drought stress tolerance of three accessions of
Vis. (Ae225, Ae550 and Ae1050) and two varieties of
L. (Sakha and Cappelle Desprez) was compared. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoenzymes, which reflects the intensity of oxidative stress, changes in the malonic dialdehyde (MDA) content, formed during the lipid peroxidation induced by stress situations, and the inducibility of electron removal systems appearing as an alternative to CO
fixation were chosen for the present investigations. Drought stress was simulated using polyethylene glycol (PEG). The order of drought stress tolerance obtained correlated well with the original habitats ofthe varieties. The present results provide a clear illustration of the fact that tolerant varieties respond differently for the parameters tested, suggesting that their resistance can be attributed to different mechanisms. Abbreviations:CuZnSOD=superoxide dismutase isoform with Cu and Zn cofactor metals, MnSOD and FeSOD=superoxide dismutase isoform with Mn and Fe cofactor metals, PVP25= polyvinyl pyrrolidone 25, MDA=malonic dialdehyde, PEG=polyethylene glycol, TCA=trichloro acetic acid, TBA=thiobarbituric acid, ΔF=F
=maximal fluorescence yield, F
=fluorescence yield in steady state
Authors:S. Sheikh, R. Behl, S. Dhanda and R. Munjal
An experiment was conducted for the measurement of membrane thermostability and chlorophyll fluorescence in parents and their six F
’s at post-anthesis stage. Parents and F
’s showed significant variation for high temperature stress tolerance in late sown conditions. Genotype PBW 435 and the cross PBW 343 × PBW 435 exhibited less relative injury and greater thermotolerance possibly through maintaining cellular membrane integrity under high temperature stress. Data based on chlorophyll fluorescence revealed reduction of mean values of all genotypes and their F
’s for F
, proportion of efficiently working Photo system II (PSII) units among the total PS II population in late sown conditions. The genotypes EIGN 8, UP 2425 and Raj 3765 and F
s EIGN 8 × UP 2425 and PBW 343 × WH 283 figured important for further wheat improvement programmes.