The unique spatial system of the medieval parish church in Kassa (now Košice, in Slovakia) induced strong debates in the literature, and some scholars called the master behind it a bungler. The reconstruction of the church at the end of the 19th century changed the floor plan entirely, with the result of a more regular arrangement.Using the drawings about the state of the church the medieval system is reconstructable in 3D. With the help of this 3D-model a structural analysis is possible.According to the spatial analysis and the structural calculations, the former unique layout of the church was the result of conscious planning.
The present study is part of an ongoing project on clustering European research institutions according to their publication
profiles. Using hierarchical clustering eight clusters have been found the optimum solution for the classification. Aim of
the present study is a structural analysis for the evaluation of research performance of specialised and multidisciplinary
institutions. A breakdown by subject fields is used to characterise field-specific peculiarities of individual clusters by
bibliometric indicators and to allow comparison within the same and among different clusters. Finally, benchmarks can then
be used to study national research performance on basis of the institutional classification.
Making existing buildings accessible often raises the question: how to bridge small differences between connecting floor levels. The acceptable level difference from accessibility point of view is defined in both national and international building regulations and standards; it couldn’t be more than 2 cm. Level-differences exceeding this value must be eliminated or bridged as it happens usually with ramps. In case of level differences smaller than 6–8 cm a regularly designed ramp occupies significant floor space; its length is about one meter. An’ adequately short’ ramp may and from many points of view should have higher gradient than 8% prescribed as maximum in building regulations. The question is that, how to define the term of’ adequately short’ and what kind of conditions must be fulfilled to avoid that threshold ramp itself becomes an obstacle. The basic goal of this paper is to analyze the applicability of threshold ramp that has no correct definition yet.
This study analyzes the pattern of transnational linkages of Indian science in eleven scientific fields (Mathematics, Physics,
Chemistry, Biology, Earth & Space Science, Agriculture, Clinical Medicine, Biomedical Research, Engineering & Technology,
Computer Science, and Materials Science) during the five-year period: 1990–1994. The following indicators are constructed
to examine inter-field and inter-country differences in India’s transnational linkages: Internationalization index, Cooperation
index, Cooperation extensiveness index and Affinity index. A four-category typology is proposed to classify the fields according
to their propensities for attracting bilateral and multilateral cooperation with foreign countries.
The structure of multidimensional system of relationships between India’s thirty-five most significant partner countries and
eleven scientific fields is analyzed through correspondence analysis. A series of correspondence analyses are carried out
on subsets of the multidimensional data to reveal the fine-grained structure of India’s cooperation links in clusters of specific
fields and with clusters of specific countries.
The alumina-dye composites were prepared by treating the basic alumina with the water solutions of Reactive Red 120 (RR 120)
and Reactive Blue 15 (RB 15) dyes. The bands of low intensities in the 1400–1600 cm−1 region and at 783 cm−1 in the IR spectra of these composites point out that the dye species is bound weakly to the surface. In the case of mechanochemical
adsorption of dye molecules, the asymmetric and symmetric S(=O)2 and the S-O-C stretching bands together with the vibrations of aromatic ring revealed that dye types under dry conditions
interacted effectively with alumina surface. After the heating of the alumina dye complexes in the temperature range 150–350°C,
the intensities of the IR and XRD peaks for adsorbed types decreased. The endothermic peaks over 200°C and the bigger total
mass losses for the alumina-dye composites can be ascribed to the decomposition of dye species retained by the alumina surface.
The mass losses on TG curves of the alumina-dye complexes up to ∼800°C exhibit the removal of black residues occurred by decomposition
of first adsorbed products. The thermal analysis data also point out that the water molecules bonded strongly to the alumina
surface and dye types compete to accommodate at the surface active sites.
Authors:G. Carturan, R. Ceccato, G. Principi, and U. Russo
Mixed oxides SiO2/SnO2 with 80/20 nominal weight composition have been obtained by the sol-gel method with different precursors. X-ray diffraction and low temperature transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy have been used to follow the structural evolution of the samples after treatments in the temperature range RT-1050 °C. The main results are that changes in the precursor nature and gel preparation affect the Sn(IV) homogeneity in the SiO2 matrix and that the use of Sn-alkoxides increases the content of residual carbon which promotes reduction of Sn(IV) at intermediate temperatures.
Authors:T. Mankovits, I. Budai, G. Balogh, A. Gábora, I. Kozma, T. Varga, S. Manó, and I. Kocsis
The development of an efficient procedure for 3d modeling and finite element simulation of metal foams is one of the greatest challenges for engineer researchers nowadays. Creating 3d CAD model is alone a demanding engineering task due to its extremely complex geometry, and the proper finite element analysis process is still in the center of the research. The increasingly widespread application of the metal foams, e.g. in vehicle and medical industry, requires this knowledge in the design phase. A closed-cell metal foam is studied using different analyzing methods where the aim is to collect information about the composition and geometry (structure) that is satisfactory for the later research. Using statistical methods microscopic, X-ray and surface analyzing studies on the specimens produced according to the concerning standard are evaluated. The main goal of this part of the project is to obtain structural information and to determine the homogeneity or the in-homogeneity property of the metal foam specimens taken from different locations.
Authors:Anita Kovács, I. Csóka, Magdolna Kónya, E. Csányi, A. Fehér, and I. Erős
The properties of the inner and the external aqueous phases, were studied in w/o/w multiple emulsions with light microscopic image analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The importance of multiple emulsions lies in the presence of these aqueous phases, making them available for sustained, controlled drug delivery systems. Differentiation of these two aqueous phases, studying the effect of manufacturing technology on droplet structure, quantitative determination of phase volumes and any changes occurring during storage are essential when planning w/o/w emulsions. The present study uses microscopic observations combined with DSC measurements in order to identify the formed structure, at developmental stage in case of different components, preparation methods, and stirring rates. These tools are beneficial during manufacturing as in process controls, or to ensure product quality.
Social science network analysis originated in the small group sociometric tradition, thus many of the common assumptions of network models are inappropriate theoretically and formally for the analysis of open systems of social relationships. Five common assumptions of network analysis are identified, discussed and criticized: (a) generators are homogeneous, (b) relationships are dichotomous, (c) groups have fixed boundaries, (d) relationships are symmetric, and (e) networks are static. It is suggested that an open input-output model overcomes many of the difficulties inherent in the more common network analytical techniques. After a formal treatment of input-output analysis, and its relationship to network analysis, some interpretations from exchange theory are suggested. This model helps the analyst overcome many of the theoretical difficulties encountered in other models and allows the researcher to specify how subsets of individuals are embedded within larger social contexts. Specifically, because society is comprised of numerous interacting subsystems, this model is particularly beneficial in describing how groups of scientists interface with each other and with the larger social domains.