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Dubbing is the norm in re-editing imported foreign screen programming in China. Yet the practice has been rarely critiqued. In this context, I have undertaken a stylistic analysis of a dubbed Chinese edition of Desperate Housewives , which was screened by China Central Television (CCTV) soon after its US release. This paper discusses the analysis and the ensuing findings. The paper presents a number of examples extracted from the original script, accompanied by the CCTV translation plus back translation of the program. I begin the paper by providing information about the CCTV edition of Desperate Housewives , focusing on its poor reception by the viewers. This is followed by a discussion of the four prominent translation strategies used in the CCTV rendition, which I have identified on the basis of the stylistic analysis. The strategies include being maximal, being literal, being logical and being sanitary. I then proceed to a critique of the four strategies. I argue that the use of the strategies is intended to serve two specific objectives. (1) Accomplishing the difficult task of translating the program from English into Chinese and from American culture into Chinese culture. (2) Taming the desperate language acts of the characters. It will be argued, however, that the use of the strategies prevents the foreign (i.e., articulation of the desperation of suburban American housewives) from coming through to the Chinese audience, which I believe contributes to the viewers’ disenchantment with the program.

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The Ligatura-Messages, op. 31b reveals an important aspect of the fragmentary mode of writing of György Kurtág: the meaning of the message which is to be expressed by music resides within the framework of a fundamental dialogic exchange between the author (the source) and the listener (the recipient) through the mediation of the instrumentalist (here, a violoncellist using two bows simultaneously). The stylistic features (the ligatures, which remind one of the partiality of the composer for Gregorian plaint-chant) are woven into the very fabric of the meaning; this is the way in which Kurtág enhances the value of the fragment, the Ligatura-Message which is also the haunt of memories, a place of remembrance both from the autobiographical viewpoint and the viewpoint of musical historiography. In this particular piece, the music of uncertainty can be perceived through the paradoxical pattern of the answered unanswered question, which may suggest that the piece is an answer to Charles Ives's Unanswered Question. The study of the similarities and differences between the two works tends to underline the dual essence, the open-endedness of the Kurtágian fragment.

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Potsherds from north and south of the Soutpansberg mountain range in Transvaal were analyzed by PIXE to establish possible trade patterns between the two regions, over the last thousand years. Correspondence analysis based on the content of 12 elements made it possible to distinguish pottery from the two regions, irrespective of where they were found. A model combining elemental and stylistic analysis was developed to explain both the physical movement of pots and the diffusion of ideas.

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The central motif of Iván Fónagy’s “extra-vagant” linguistics — in terms of his own metaphor — was the idea of “languages within language”: the issue of mapping the ontogenesis of language onto a particular language of the present. In other words: what is the consistent ontogenetic interpretation of a given fact of language? In his oeuvre, the inventively documented solution to that problem is the theory of “double encoding”: the claim that, after being linguistically encoded, a linguistic expression goes through a second encoding phase during implementation in which it gets saturated by supplementary aspects of content. The latter are imprints of ancient gestures in language. On the other hand, the mechanism is also the source of the historical emergence of demotivated linguistic signs. The application of the principle not only makes it possible to resolve intricate problems in theoretical linguistics but also to explain remotivation in poetic language and to use it as a tool in stylistic analysis.

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The subject of this article is the tomb of Kazimir the Great, located within the easternmost arcade of the Cracow cathedral ambulatory. Its importance has been acknowledged in numerous studies but there are many questions which previous scholarship failed to consider in depth. I therefore focus on two outstanding issues. Firstly I examine the implications of the fact that the effigy was left incomplete, and underline the importance of tomb design in Hungary. Secondly I emphasise the centrality of Louis the Great's role in creating his predecessor's tomb at Cracow. In addition, I provide a new description of the tomb in its present state, based on the examination of visual records and the unpublished documents in the Cracow archives. Furthermore, I undertake a stylistic analysis of the tomb giving consideration to the achievements of the most accomplished sculptural workshops of contemporary Central Europe, but focusing on the Hungarian tomb sculpture and metalwork. This analysis suggests that the sculptor of Kazimir's tomb worked in the employ of Louis the Great and his style was rooted in the tradition of Hungarian sculpture. It appears that the miscellaneous stylistic references apparent in the Wawel tomb are due to his extensive knowledge of contemporary artistic trends. Finally, it is proposed that the tomb was constructed some time between 1371 and 1375.

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The burial site and fragments of the tomb of Queen Gertrude of Andechs-Meran, first wife of King Andrew II (1205–1235) and a victim of assassination in 1213, were discovered during the excavations carried out in the Cistercian church of Pilis between 1967 and 1982. Her tomb was found along the central axis of the church, in the crossing. The present study, which includes the complete catalogue of the known fragments, attempts to establish the typology, iconography, and stylistic context of the artwork. New reconstructions are proposed for the two short sides of the sarcophagus-shaped tomb, which each bore distinct forms: one contained a wide, shallow niche, while the other depicted two standing figures under a double arcade. The figural ornaments on the sides of the tomb and the gisant with angels on the lid occupy an important place in the history of funerary art. In fact, the tomb displays one of the first examples of this type of decoration. The seated figures on the side relief probably represent the choir of saints in heaven, who provided companionship for the soul of the deceased queen. Gertrude herself is represented not only on top of the tomb, but also appears as a donor in one of the reliefs.

Stylistic analysis of the figures proves that their master came from the workshop responsible for the Last Judgment and Callixtus portals of the cathedral of Reims. He must have left the workshop around 1220, before the portals were completed and installed in the façade of the northern transept. At about this time, Villard de Honnecourt also embarked on his travels that took him from Reims to Hungary. The style of Gertrude’s tomb bears similarities to the Villard’s drawings, even if we do not wish to attribute the sculptures to him. A team of masons from Reims also arrived in Pannonhalma during this time frame and worked on the abbey church there. Their most important work in Pannonhalma is the southern portal of the new church, the Porta Speciosa. The complicated nature of these construction histories reminds us of the need for caution when attributing one work of art to one person.

Both Gertrude’s tomb and the Porta Speciosa are prime examples of the cultural and artistic period that began in the late 12th century, when the Kingdom of Hungary was a leader in the region in the reception of French Gothic.

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from Cassiodorus, so we would have to look for a common source between Cassiodorus and Marcellinus (as T. Nagy did). Based on a stylistic analysis of the two sources, the more likely possibilities are that, as in other passages of the Getica, Jordanes

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and naturalness of the language per singer, and compares the findings between the two versions. A loose system of simple, average, and complex grammatical structures and vocabulary per song line supports this stylistic analysis ( Leech and Short 2007

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Social Change, Dress and Identity

Observations on the Disintegration of Peasant Culture as Exemplified by Rural Women’s Clothing in Hungary from the First World War to the End of the Kádár Era Socialism

Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Ágnes Fülemile

folk costume is to view the dress change within the context of a stylistic analysis and periodization of the entire complex of expressive peasant art in the backdrop of economic and social processes. 11 Scholars established the categories of “old style

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