, Domestic Savings, Domestic Investment, and Economic Growth: The Case of Sub-Saharan Africa . Society and Economy 38 ( 2 ): 193 – 217 . Ajayi , M. S. I. ( 1997 ): An
for the benefit of its populations”. Boshoff ( 2009 ) notes that sub-Saharan Africa's share of world scientific papers was 1% in 1987 and has continued to decrease to stand at 0.7% in 1996. As a whole, Africa's world share of scientific papers was 1
1 Introduction For several decades, Sub-Saharan African (SSA) economies have been struggling with poverty, hunger, epidemics, child and infant mortality. Access to proper sanitation, healthcare, education, energy services and potable water remains
Development Assistance and Foreign Direct Investment Flows to Sub- Saharan Africa . African Development Review 17 ( 1 ): 23 – 40 .
Effectiveness of Foreign Aid . European Economic Review , 40 ( 2 ): 289 – 329 . Brautigam , D. – Knack , S. ( 2004 ): Foreign Aid, Institutions, and Governance in Sub-Saharan Africa
. Sanginga, N., Merckx, R. (eds.), Integrated Plant Nutrient Management in Sub-Saharan Africa: from Concept to Practice . CABI Publishing CAB International, UK. Merckx R
infection events in Sub-Saharan Africa followed by North Africa and the Middle East. Focusing on the reported symptoms, the association between pathogens and symptoms is presented in Table 2 . As shown in this table, mild to moderate gastrointestinal
internet versus one out of five in 2015 ( World Development Indicators | DataBank, n.d. ). When looking for instance at sub-Saharan Africa, the proportion of individuals using the internet was 0.4% in 1999, 4.4% in 2009, and 29% in 2019 ( Individuals using
Ethnological and religious studies point to differentiation in the status of men and women, which eventually results from cultural conditions, and not from biological differences. Many researchers indicate asymmetry connected with the gender, which also refers to the religious sphere. The nonliterate peoples consider life to be the fundamental value and that is the reason why their cultural and religious traditions put emphasis on woman's biological functions and see procreation as her main vocation and task. A woman performs the role of a native doctor and healer among many African peoples, since the basic medical care takes place within the family. In Africa older women after menopause perform priestly duties to a smaller degree. Researchers of the African peoples emphasize that spirit possession takes place more frequently in the case of women than men, which they consider a reaction to the inferior status of women in the social, political and religious life. Both men and women are diviners among manyAfrican peoples. Among some peoples of Eastern and Southern Africa women control the Earth fertility and they are renowned rainmakers. Women belong to secret societies in some African peoples. Both men and women can be sorcerers and witches, although among many African peoples it is more often older women who are accused of witchcraft, which is explained by social and economic inequality and the desire for power.
This paper investigates, through an analysis of the published literature, the notion held by several people that HIV/AIDS in Africa is unique. Using co-word and multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses of MEDLINE-extracted HIV/AIDS records, this study used five lists of terms to investigate the related-ness of various factors and diseases to HIV/AIDS. The lists consisted of risk factors, sexually transmitted diseases, tropical diseases, opportunistic diseases, and pre-disposing factors. Data (i.e. words.txt — consisting of keywords/phrases describing the aforementioned factors and diseases; and text.txt — containing HIV/AIDS papers’ titles) were analyzed using TI computer-aided application software, developed by Leydesdorff. Results revealed that several factors and diseases that are pre-dominant in Sub-Saharan Africa exhibited strong and high pattern of co-occurrences with HIV/AIDS, implying close associated-ness with the epidemic in the region. Further areas of research, whose results will be used to make conclusive observations and arguments concerning the uniqueness of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, are recommended.