The present paper outlines a historical change in Hungarian syntax by focusing on participial constructions and their clausal equivalents in ten different Hungarian translations of the Bible. The first part investigates the relative frequency of the relevant structures and, relying upon statistical data, it characterises the process of a shift from analytic to synthetic constructions. Then we analyse secondary semantic differences among the various structures (participial constructions, subordinate clauses and coordinate clauses) and propose that in the case of subordination the semantic relationship between the matrix sentence and the dependent clause is expressed in an explicit manner. However, if the meaning of the related participial construction is complex (combining features of temporal, causal, and instrumental relationships), a subordinate clause can express only one of these, and the other features are not represented in it. Coordination, on the other hand, especially asyndetic (conjunctionless) coordination and that involving the conjunctions és, s ‘and’, is more capable of embracing several shades of meaning. Thus, in terms of their semantic properties, coordinate clauses are more similar to participial constructions than subordinate clauses are. Finally, the paper raises some general ideas with respect to the theoretical background of this kind of shift in sentence construction. The framework of the study is what is called “traditional grammar”, but it also introduces some terms of functional grammar.
When a question phrase bears a grammatical function in a subordinate clause but the interrogativity it introduces extends over a higher clause, there are two main possibilities in Hungarian: (i) the question phrase appears preverbally in the clause over which it takes scope, or (ii) the question phrase appears in the subordinate clause while the scope of interrogativity is indicated by the presence of another question phrase in the higher clause (the scope-marking construction). In order to understand the features shared by these two types of question and the ways in which they differ, this article explores the intonation of these types of multiple-clause constituent questions in Hungarian. The results of experimental investigation are reported and discussed, and the significance of these findings is evaluated in the context of wider typological variation in the formation of multiple-clause constituent questions.
In the 18th century, 23 plays of Molière’s were translated into Croatian in Dubrovnik/Ragusa. They were the first Molière translations in a Slavonic-speaking area. Despite the fact that the language of the translations is Croatian, there are several parts in the text which are in Italian. The paper aims at analyzing the role of some longer parts of texts (such as a full-length dialogue, a group of sentences, main clauses, subordinate clauses, and phrases) in Italian in the play Monsieur de Pourceaugnac/Jovadin. The Italian textual elements reflect the world of trade in the Mediterranean and the world of law and medicine in Dubrovnik/Ragusa.
The aim of this study was to test the explicitation hypothesis (Blum-Kulka 1986) on the morpho-syntactic level. A bi-directional comparable corpus of popular texts on history, as well as German and Czech parallel corpora were analysed in order to investigate the tendency in translations to use more explicit modes of expression instead of syntactic condensation devices. At the first stage of the study, the frequencies of finite verbs in main and subordinate clauses, participial phrases and infinitive constructions, and deverbative nouns and adjectives in original Czech and German texts were contrasted. Results showed that Czech prefers more verbal/explicit modes of expression in contrast with the more nominal/implicit German style. The second stage of the study consisted of the examination of explicitating and implicitating shifts in both German-to-Czech and Czech-to-German translations. The findings fully confirm the explicitation hypothesis, with explicitation exceeding implicitation by 40.6% in Czech and by 47.8% in German translations. The word count analysis also supports the hypothesis. At the third stage, translations were subjected to the same quantitative analysis as was conducted at stage one on original texts. The frequencies revealed in translations were then compared with those obtained from original target language texts. The German comparable corpus proved to have a higher degree of explicitness in translations while the Czech comparable corpus did not show any clear-cut explicitation tendencies in translations.
This paper is devoted to untangling some of the cross-linguistic puzzles that are associated with temporal adverbial clauses in general, and until-clauses in particular. After a brief introduction to the issues raised by the construction in Hungarian, the paper presents an overview of the complexities of until-clauses and prior attempts at analyzing these. Then, an account that was first proposed in MacDonald & Ürögdi (2009a;b; 2011) for English is presented, and it is argued that until-constructions do not require any of the special machinery that has been proposed to explain their behavior. The analysis outlined accounts for the properties of temporal adverbials formed with until and for without reference to auxiliary concepts like “expletive negation” and “stativizing negation”. After this detour into English, we return to Hungarian, where until-clauses present a more complex picture than they do in Germanic, and we see how even these data can be accounted for without special stipulations. Finally, the results are tied into the general picture of temporal and event relativization (cf. Haegeman & Ürögdi 2010a;b), providing support for an analysis of a well-defined class of subordinate clauses involving operator movement.
This analysis of Thomas Hardy's The Darkling Thrushemploys philosophical categories borrowed from the works of Herbert Spencer and Karl Jaspers. Thomas Hardy, although he did
not attempt to base his poetry on a systematic philosophy, was well-versed in eighteenth and nineteenth century empiricism,
positivism, liberalism and evolutionism. He was familiar with Herbert Spencer's philosophy of the Unknowable. Herbert in the
1860scriticised religious theories for the assumption that ultimate reality can be known. He conceived the Unknowable as a
constituent part of the universe. Spencer's category was echoed in Hardy's frequent use of the privative prefix, as in the
titles Unknowing, The Self-Unseeing, Self-Unconscious., Similarly, The Darkling Thrush concludes with the word “unaware”. The existentialist philosopher Karl Jaspers, though from an antagonistic stance, used
a similar category when in the 1930s he claimed that “In not-knowing, absolute consciousness becomes a kind of certainty.”
The poem was written and published on the very last days of the 19th century, and thus not only records but also represents
what Jaspers called a “boundary situation”. Hardy deals with transcendental hope contradicting human reason. The analysis
points out that the metrical form of the poem is responsible for certain religious inference. Hardy used the so-called hymnal
stanza, the form of popular church hymns by Isaac Watts, Charles Wesley, William Cowper, and John Keeble, all known to Hardy.
The effect is further enhanced by the religious connotations of the word “evensong”in stanza four. However, the contrapuntal
structure of the poem carefully counterbalances any easy pathos. In the last verse-sentence the subordinate clause in which
the word “Hope” occurs is modified by a non-restrictive adverbial clause. The word “unaware”, left nakedly in the final position,
challenges the positive note of “Hope” So, although the vigour of the frail bird defies the emptiness of godless existence,
the poem ends on a vacuum-effect. Hardy refuses to deify Nature's defiance, but does not deny the chance of Hope. This “conquered
nonknowledge”is his reply to unreasoned hope.
Keller, Frank 2000. Gradience in grammar. Doctoral dissertation, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh.
Kenesei, István 1994. Subordinateclauses. In: Ferenc Kiefer - Katalin É. Kiss (eds): The syntactic structure of
“ dat -bysin”: Een Distinctieve Collexeemanalyse [On lexical associations of the alternation between the “bare subordinateclause” and the “ that subordinateclause”: a distinctive collexeme analysis] . Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe / Journal of