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Abstract  

Properties of two catalysts tailored in the laboratory conditions by sulfation of commercial Zr-hydroxide and Zr-hydroxide of nitrate origin were compared with those of commercial SO4-Zr-hydroxide. Equally thermally treated samples in the temperature interval 500–700°C, and having the same amount of sulfur, show different properties indicating memory effect of their solid parent materials. The catalyst obtained by sulfation of commercial Zr-hydroxide differs in amount of residual sulfates upon calcination from other two catalysts. The instability of sulfates in the previous case might be connected to the lowest surface area values of catalyst and the highest fraction of monoclinic phase observed at all applied calcination temperatures.

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Abstract  

The kinetics of the esterification of acetic acid with butanol in the presence of sulfated zirconia was studied. Several kinetic models were tested to correlate the kinetic data. The experimental data was represented by the Eley–Rideal mechanism and it is found that sulfated zirconia is suitable for this reaction since the activation energy reduced from 58.0 to 49.2 kJ/mol. The liquid phase esterification of butanol with acetic acid was carried out in a batch reactor at temperatures of 328, 333, 338 and 343 K, with an alcohol to acid molar ratio of 1. The equilibrium constants were determined in separate experiments at 328, 333, 338 and 343 K and calculated as 29.9, 29.3, 28.6 and 28.0, in order. Before these kinetic and equilibrium runs, the catalyst was prepared by impregnating zirconia with H2SO4. The prepared catalyst was characterized by thermal analysis, XRD, SEM, BET-surface area and IR analysis.

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are also formed in the presence of heteropolyacid catalysts. Sulfated zirconia based mesoporous catalyst have shown good potential for linear alkylbenzene synthesis and have given maximum yield (94%) at 10:1 molar ratio of benzene and 1-dodecene [ 17

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kinds of sulfated zirconia (SO 4 2− /ZrO 2 ) and sulfated titanium oxide (SO 4 2− /TiO 2 ) have been most frequently investigated because of their good catalytic performances in many reactions [ 5 – 7 ]. However, they have similar disadvantages of rapid

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-catalyzed reactions have been reported [ 19 , 20 ]. Kitayama et al. [ 21 ] introduced acid sites in FSM-16 by modification with sulfated zirconia. Fe-modified FSM-16 has also been reported to possess high Brønsted acidity [ 22 ]. However, reports dealing with Ga

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