The aim of the study was to reveal antioxidant synergism or antagonism between quercetin, rutin and selected tocotrienols in linoleic acid emulsion. The oxidative stress was generated by 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) or CuSO4; the increase of the concentration of peroxidation products was monitored using fluorescence probe 2,7-dichlorofluorescein (DCF). The antioxidant activity of tested substances depends on the form of the antioxidant (aglycone, glycoside), its concentration, localization in the emulsion, and the factors generating oxidative stress. The synergistic effect occurred when the effectiveness of individual antioxidant was relatively weak and mainly when the concentration of antioxidants was in the physiologically significant range of 1 μM. We suggest that tocotrienols were regenerated by flavonoids. The synergism benefitted from the proximity of the localization of interacting antioxidants (e.g. the presence of one of the antioxidants at the oil-water interface).
The synergism of lithium bromide and antimony trioxide on the flame-retardancy of a cotton fabric (woven, plain 150 g m2) has been investigated in this study. The impregnations of cotton fabric with suitable individual additives and/or their appropriate admixed formulation were carried out. The flammability test has also been fulfilled using described procedure, in the earlier published articles. Their outcomes comply with thermogravimetry’s data. Moreover the latest mentioned outcomes support the catalytic effect of this synergism. Explanation of the data could be in favor of existing flame-retardation’s theories. Ultimately this synergism is in compliance with the green chemistry and economical viewpoints.
Plutella xylostella has become particularly notorious for its resistance to various insecticides. The toxicities of abamectin, hexaflumuron and indoxacarb to third instar larvae of the pest were assayed using the leaf-dipping method. The results showed that abamectin and indoxacarb with the lowest LC50 values exhibited stronger toxicity to larvae than hexaflumuron. To determine the synergism of PBO, DEM, DEF and TPP on the toxicity of tested insecticides and demonstrating possible biochemical mechanisms, an abamectin-, a hexaflu-muron- and an indoxacarb-resistant strain of P. xylostella were selected under laboratory conditions. After 10 generations of selection, the selected strains developed 14.21, 7.08, and 32.36-fold higher resistance to these insecticides, respectively. Abamectin resistance in abamectin-selected strain was suppressed with the synergists such as DEM and PBO, suggesting the involvement of monooxygeneses and glutathione S-transferase in the development of resistance in P. xylostella. Treatment with PBO and DEF significantly decreased the toxicity of hexaflumuron in the hexaflumuron-selected strain. Also, in indoxacarb-selected strain, the maximum synergism was occurred using PBO and DEF, followed by DEM and TPP. Hexaflumuron and indoxacarb synergism studies indicated in hexaflumuron resistance, monooxygenases and esterases, and in indoxacarb resistance, monooxygenases, esterases and glutathione S-transferae may be involved in the resistance mechanisms
.” Further evidence for synergism Several other lines of evidence support the hypothesis of complex synergisms unlocking entheogenic potentials. First, the community of “oilahuasca” researchers procures ASCs by mixing essential oils that contain
have synergistic, and/or antagonistic effects. Actually an additional effect is the sum of the effects of the mixed components taken independently. Synergism means that the observed effect is greater than individual efficiency of each additive, on the
The synergism of the crown ethers (CE) dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DC18C6), dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6) and 18-crown-6 (18C6) has been investigated in the thenoyl trifluoroacetone (HTTA) extraction of americium(III) in benzene medium from an aqueous phase of ionic strength 0.5 and pH 3.50 at room temperature (23°C). The extracted synergistic species have the general formula Am(TTA)3 · CE except for DC18C6 in which case the species Am(TTA)3·2CE was also observed at high CE concentrations. The order of synergism was found to be DC18C6>DB18C6>18C6, which is the order of the basicity of CE as indicated by their ability to extract hydrogen ions from nitric acid solutions.
Evaluation of the residual stability of polyurethane automotive coatings by DSC
Equivalence of Xenotest and desert weathering tests and the synergism of stabilizers
Degradation of poly(ester-urethanes), poly(ether-urethanes) and poly(acrylic-urethanes), as a base for automotive paintings in interior applications, has been studied by DSC. The samples were clearcoat and black-pigmented paints, unstabilized and stabilized with HALS Tinuvin 292, UV absorber Tinuvin 1130 and antioxidant Hostanox O3, exposed to weathering in Xenotest and in Arizona desert. From the dependences of oxidation onset temperature on the heating rate, the kinetic parameters enabling to calculate the oxidation induction time for a chosen temperature have been obtained. From the values of oxidation induction time, the protection factors of the additives and the residual stability of the polymer after an ageing stress has been evaluated. It has been shown that the equivalence between the two methods of weathering depends on the polymer composition. A new criterion for the evaluation of synergism/antagonism of additives in the stabilizing mixture has been proposed.
Synergism with amides
I. Synergistic extraction of uranyl ion with thenoyltrifluoroacetone and some aliphatic amides
Synergistic extraction of uranyl ion with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA) and aliphatic amides with varying basicities, viz. dibutyl hexanamide (DBHA), dibutyloctanamide (DBOA) or dibutyldecanamide (DBDA) has been studied at various fixed temperatures of 20, 30, 40 and 50±0.1°C. Results indicate that the equilibrium constants of the organic phase addition reaction (Ks) with these amides follow their order of basicity (Kh) viz. DBHA (0.09)<0.10) H DBOA (0.13) with log Ks values of 4.91, 4.99 and 5.02, respectively. These values are much higher than those with TBP (3.8) or sulfoxides (4) as donors. This may be attributed to the existence of a resonance form of the amide, which has higher electron density on the carbonyl oxygen. The thermodynamic parameters associated with these systems evaluated by the temperature coefficient method indicate that the organic phase addition reaction with all the three amides is stabilized by both enthalpy and entropy changes as against UO 2 2+ /HTTA/TBP system, where only the enthalpy change contributes to the stabilization.
Synergism with amides
II. Synergistic extraction of uranylion with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoylpyrazolone-5 (HPMBP) and some aliphatic amides
Synergistic extraction of uranyl ion with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoylpyrazolone-5 (HPMBP) and N,N-dibutyl derivatives of hexanamide (DBHA), octanamide (DBOA) and decanamide (DBDA) has been studied at various fixed temperatures of 20, 30, 40 and (50±0.1)°C. Results indicate that the equilibrium constants of the organic phase addition reaction (log Ks) with these amides follow their order of basicity (Kh) viz. 4.01 (DBHA, Kh=0.09)<4.05 (DBOA, Kh=0.1)<4.09 (DBDA, Kh=0.13). These values of log Ks (4) are lower than those (5) of HTTA system with these amides, which may perhaps be attributed to the effect of steric hindrance exerted by the uranyl pyrazolone ohelate to the incoming rigid amide molecule. High negative H and negative S values for this system indicate the organic phase reaction to be an addition and not a substitution.
The extraction of Be(II) from sulphuric acid solutions by binary mixtures particularly that of the sodium salt of di-(2-ethyl hexyl)-phosphoric acid (NaDEHP) and tributyl phosphate (TBP), has been described. The dependence of extraction on acidity, diluent type and solvents concentration was thoroughly examined. The possible extraction mechanism is discussed in the light of results obtained.