Some synergistic effects of antioxidants in natural rubber were investigated considering results obtained by differencial
scanning calorimetry (DSC). Rubber formulations were obtained with mixtures of diaminic(DPPD, IPPD, HPPD) and monoaminic (ADPA,
PBN) stabilizers and evaluated. The samples containing the mixture diamine/ADPA stabilizers showed synergistic effects while,
for those containing diamine/PBN, no effect was observed. Additionally, the diffusion constants determined by use of vulcanized
rubber disks confirmed the molar mass dependence of the stabilizer.
The synergistic effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) with layered double hydroxides (LDH) in ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer/LDH (EVA/LDH)
composites have been studied using thermal analysis (TG), limiting oxygen index (LOI), UL-94 tests, and cone calorimeter test
(CCT). The results from the UL-94 tests show that the ZnO can also act as flame retardant synergistic agents in the EVA/LDH
composites. The CCT data indicated that the addition of ZnO in EVA/LDH system can greatly reduce the heat release rate. The
TG data show that the ZnO can increase the thermal degradation temperature and the charred residues after burning.
Authors:Chi-Lik Ken Lee, Zhi-Yu Sem, Hendra Hendra, Xiaoqian Liu, and Wei Lek Kwan
An ultrasound irradiated continuous-flow system was developed to accelerate chemical reaction by cavitation effect. Nucleophilic aromatic substitutions were performed, and the results showed that ultrasound irradiated is superior over generic heating in a continuous-flow system. The combination of micro-cavitation and flow chemistry synergistically enhanced the reaction yield and rate while maintaining the reaction at a much lower temperature.
Authors:A. Ramadan, M. Mahmoud, S. Khalifa, and N. Souka
The extraction of Eu(III) by dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (HDNNS) in benzene from nitrate and perchlorate solutions has been investigated. For nitrate solutions the ionic strength of the aqueous phase was kept constant at 0.1M using NaNO3–HNO3 mixtures. The Eu distribution was measured at different temperatures. The following stoichiometric formulae for the Eu species in benzene were derived: Eu(NO3) (Hn–1 (DNNS)n)2 and Eu(Hn–1 (DNNS)n)3, from the nitrate and perchlorate medium respectively (n being a small number, e.g. 1, 2 or 3). The equilibrium constants were calculated and the thermodynamic parameters of the system were determined. When adding dibenzo-24-crown-8, dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 or trioctylphosphine oxide, no synergism, but rather antagonism was observed.
Authors:Mao Jia-Jun, Chen Yu-De, Zhang Gui-Rong, and Zhou Zu-Ming
A study on the synergistic extraction of uranium(VI) from nitric acid media with double-chelating agent systems 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5 (PMBP) plus thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA), and 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazolone-5 plus 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-trifluoroacetyl-pyrazolone-5 (PMTFP) is described. Some synergistic effects have been observed. The experimental results suggest that the composition of synergistic complex species is UO2PMBP·TTA and UO2PMBP·PMTFP, respectively. The equilibrium constants for these synergistic extractions are calculated by three methods and the mechanism and the regularity of extraction are discussed as well.
A novel charring agent poly(p-propane terephthalamide) (PPTA) was synthesized by using terephthaloyl chloride and 1,3-propanediamine through solution polycondensation and it was used together with ammonium polyphosphate (APP) to prepare a novel intumescent flame retardant (IFR) for ABS. The thermal degradation behaviour and flame retardancy were investigated, the results showed that PPTA could be effective as a charring agent, the flame retardancy of ABS and the mass of residues improved greatly with the addition of IFR. When the content of APP was 22.5 mass% and PPTA was 7.5 mass%, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of IFR-ABS system was found to be 32.4, and class V-0 of UL-94 test was passed. Moreover, the synergistic effects of two different adjuvants AlPi and MnO2 in IFR-ABS system have been studied.
Authors:B. Reddy, L. Reddy, A. Reddy, M. Reddy, T. Ramamohan, and A. Damodaran
The extraction of Er(III) and Lu(III) from thiocyanate media with 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHEHPA) and also with mixtures of EHEHPA and thenoltrifluoroacetone (HTTA) or tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) or bis 2-ethylhexyl sulfoxide (B2EHSO) in benzene has been studied systematically. Synergistic effects have been observed with mixtures of EHEHPA+HTTA or TOPO. On the other hand, antagonistic effects have been observed with mixtures of EHEHPA+B2EHSO. These extraction data have been analyzed theoretically with the aid of a computer by taking into account complexation of the metal in the aqueous phase by SCN– and plausible complexation in the organic phase. The extraction constants of the various product species have been deduced by non-linear regression analysis. The stability constants for the thiocyanate complexes of the metal ions have also been determined.
Authors:Shuang Hu, Yuan Hu, Lei Song, and Hongdian Lu
Ferric pyrophosphate (FePP) was used as additive to study its synergistic effect of thermal degradation on cotton fabrics. The microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), Raman spectroscopy and Real Time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (RT-FTIR) were utilized to evaluate the synergistic effects of FePP on cotton/DIA. The MCC results revealed that cotton/DIA/FePP generated less combustion heat during heating than that of cotton/DIA. TG results showed that presence of FePP improved the thermal stability of materials. The Raman spectroscopy test showed that FePP can ameliorate the structural organization level of the carbon and the graphitization degree of the char. RT-FTIR data revealed the mechanism of the influence of FePP, which can catalyze the break of the flame retardant as well as promote the char forming.