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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal lead exposure on the learning and memory ability and expression of tau protein phosphorylation (P-tau) and beta amyloid protein (Aβ) in hippocampus of mice offspring. Pb exposure initiated from beginning of gestation to weaning. Pb acetate administered in drinking solutions was dissolved in distilled deionized water at the concentrations of 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% groups. On the 21 th of postnatal day, the learning and memory ability of the mouse pups was tested by Water Maze test and the Pb levels in blood and hippocampus of the offspring were also determined. The expression of P-tau and Aβ in hippocampus was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The Pb levels in blood and hippocampus of all exposure groups were significantly higher than that of the control group ( P < 0.05). In Water Maze test, the performances of 0.5% and 1% groups were worse than that of the control group ( P < 0.05). The expression of P-tau and Aβ was increased in Pb exposed groups than that of the control group ( P < 0.05). Tau hyper-phosphorylation and Aβ increase in the hippocampus of pups may contribute to the impairment of learning and memory associated with maternal Pb exposure.

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Li, N., Yu, Z. L., Wang, L., Zheng, Y. T., Jia, J. X., Wang, Q., Zhu, M. J., Liu, X. L., Xia, X., Li, W. J. (2010) Increased tau phosphorylation and beta amyloid in the hippocampus of mouse pups by early life lead exposure. Acta Biol. Hung. 61 , 123

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-induced hyperphosphorylation of tau in 3xTg-AD mice. Also, in the study by Yang et al. ( 54 ), subcutaneous insulin delivery did not reduce brain tau phosphorylation. Radioactively labeled insulin studies confirm that it crosses the BBB by a saturable mechanism. Banks

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melatonin that relate to brain aging, and neurodegenerative diseases remain poorly characterized. However, chronic treatment with melatonin in the SAMP8 model could reduce oxidative stress and neurodegenerative pathways, as well as tau phosphorylation and

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