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Abstract

Why did China grow so fast in the past four decades? What were the main factors? Important ones were: attitude of government; opening to the world; role of culture; exploitation of technological gap; role of foreign trained students; and role of government in the creation of modern infrastructure. These factors are likely to play a much smaller role in the future while several negative factors –populism, trade wars, environmental obstacles, aging of the population, authoritarianism and others are likely to lead to significantly lower growth rates.

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Abstract  

Because the basic determinants of innovative success are poorly understood, the data in SI-76 cannot support an unambiguous summary assessment of U. S. science. While some nations now rival the U. S. in relative expenditure for R&D, U. S. absolute expenditure still dwarfs that of any nation except the U. S. S. R., and the U. S. remains preeminent by most measures of technological capacity. However, the technology gap continues to narrow, bringing both costs and benefits to the U. S. Advances abroad threaten the U. S. position in some markets and exacerbate the nation's trade adjustment problems. But the nation may also benefit substantially from new opportunities to import as well as export advanced technology.

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Krugman, P. (1986): A “Technology Gap” Model of International Trade. In: Jungenfelt, K. — Hague, D. (eds.): Structural Adjustment in Advanced Economies . Basingstoke: Macmillan, pp. 35–48. Krugman P

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Office for Official Publications of the European Communities Luxembourg . Fagerberg , J. 1987 A technology gap approach to why growth rates differ

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market since, Korean firms emerged to challenge aggressively in the mid-1990s. Taiwanese firms, as the late entrants to catch up with global competitors, dexterously sought to overcome technology gaps to attain footholds in the FPD industry. Via rounds of

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