The SLOWPOKE II nuclear reactor developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is well suited for neutron activation analysis and the production of small quantities of radionuclides. Emphasis has been placed on local research groups to transfer appropriate technology developed in their laboratories into the community. This paper will review the development of several research protocols and associated technology and outline their successful implementation into local industry. These include for example, the monitoring of environmental chlorinated compounds, the irradiation of gem stones, placer gold-mining efficiency measurements and measuring industrial flow-processes.
Spillovers from foreign direct investment in Central and Eastern Europe
An index for measuring a country’s potential to benefit from technology spillovers
. J. (2008): Welfare Gains from Foreign Direct Investment through Technology Transfer to Local Suppliers. Journal of International Economics 74: 402–421. Gertler P. J. Welfare
Introduction 1 As Bozeman ( 2000 ) points out, more attention has been paid to domestic technology transfer than international technology transfer from the 1980s. From the view point of utilizing domestic science and technology
Following the big transformations of the 1990s, enterprise structure and technological level seem to have become stabilised in Hungary. Under these circumstances it is especially interesting to identify the elements responsible for competitiveness in general, and the role technology plays in development in particular, according to managers experienced in production and marketing. This empirical study - based on in-depth interviews and field research - summarises characteristics of the technological level in the sectors examined, role of technology and labour in production, effects of foreign direct investment, relations between competition and firm-level factors determining competitiveness, and concludes by summing up those most frequently mentioned proposals that should be incorporated into economic policy according to managers. Main findings indicate that more qualified, more intensive and cheaper labour can be substituted for high technology. The competitiveness of an enterprise is not determined by technology alone, but rather by a combination of technology, the parameters of available labour and the costs of investment increasing productivity. The insufficiency of inter-company relations, together with a shortage of available assets necessary for investment constitute the major threat undermining the competitiveness of enterprises in present-day Hungary.
In international business practice, subcontracting is an unbalanced form of co-operation. It can bring serious negative effects for partners from less developed countries because of the strong onesided dependence on the “developed” partner. International experience, e.g. in the maquiladora region suggests that degradation of corporate activities, low profitability, technological dependence, loss of own production and shrinking market presence of own products may characterise many firms, and even whole industries or regions. These firms, regions and industries often become isolated from the national economy. Therefore, potential positive modernisation effects may also be “locked” in the subcontracting firm not spreading in the economy.
Hungarian experience with subcontracting was somewhat different already in the 1970s and 1980s. Companies concluded subcontracts with more developed Western partners in order to gain access to up-to-date technology and know-how, new markets and new products. Many of them incorporated the acquired knowledge with success. During the 1990s subcontracting was the driving force of corporate modernisation, since former development sources (primarily state subsidies) dried up. Many firms chose the new option of adjustment strategy. The efforts of Hungarian companies to integrate into the international division of labour coincided with the substantial change of subcontracting deals on world markets. Subcontracting became a form of outsourcing and changed to a long-term, network-type of co-operation form with considerable knowledge transfer.
This study presents the results of an empirical survey. The Department of Business Economics of the Budapest University of Economics and Public Administration carried out two rounds of interviews in more than 300 companies both in 1996 and 1999. The survey revealed some new features of international subcontracting patterns and found some evidence of modernisation impacts subcontracting has on Hungarian corporate strategies.
We estimate the determinants of university patents by route in Spain. National patents are an indicator of R&D efforts when we focus on the region, but not of how regions organize their university or joint research structure. International patents are a stronger indicator of R&D efforts, so they express confidence in the potential of the patent. Neither set is an indicator of proximity to the region's competencies in technologies other than for production-intensive sectors, so they will not always foster regional technology transfer. Since the driving forces of national and international patents differ, the use of both is recommended.
This work examines a scientometric model that tracks the emergence of an identified technology from initial discovery (via original scientific and conference literature), through critical discoveries (via original scientific, conference literature and patents), transitioning through Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and ultimately on to commercial application. During the period of innovation and technology transfer, the impact of scholarly works, patents and on-line web news sources are identified. As trends develop, currency of citations, collaboration indicators, and on-line news patterns are identified. The combinations of four distinct and separate searchable on-line networked sources (i.e., scholarly publications and citation, patents, news archives, and on-line mapping networks) are assembled to become one collective network (a dataset for analysis of relations). This established network becomes the basis from which to quickly analyze the temporal flow of activity (searchable events) for the example subject domain we investigated.
The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been developing a dual energy pulser for dead time and random summing corrections, and for the assessment of the quality of the data for many years. This effort now includes several revisions of the original concept. Recently, Canberra has developed a version of this dual energy pulser as part of a technology transfer from INEL to Canberra Industries. This new design includes many of the same characteristics as the original INEL design. In this paper, we will present the results of a series of tests performed at NIEL with both the latest INEL pulser design and the Canberra design. These test results include measurement results of pulser peak width, energy equivalence and dead time and random summing correction capability as a function of count rate and temperature. It is demonstrated that both designs perform comparably with count rate and temperature when operated over a limited temperature range. In applications where extreme temperature variations are likely during the measurements, the INEL design is the better choice.
Patenting and licensing is not only a significant method of university knowledge transfer, but also an important indicator for measuring academic R&D strength and knowledge utilization. The methodologies of quantitative and qualitative analysis, including a special patent h-index indicator to assess patenting quality, were used to examine university patenting worldwide. Analysis of university patenting from 1998 to 2008 showed a significant overall global increase in which Chinese academia stands out: most of the top 20 universities in patenting in 2008 were in China. However, a low rate of utilization of Chinese academic patents may have roots in: (1) university research evaluation system encourages the patent production more, rather than the utilization; (2) problems in the formal mechanisms for university technology transfer and licensing, (3) industry’s limited expectation and receptive capabilities and/or (4) a mismatch between the interests of the two institutional spheres. The next action to be taken by government, university and industry in China will be to explore strategies for improving academic patent quality and industry take-up.
-Infoterm 2003 . Terminology and Technology Transfer in the Multilingual Information Society . Vienna–Riga : TermNet–LLI of LU . 3. IITF-Series 1994 . Terminology Science and Terminology Planning