. In: J. Chapman–P. Dolukhanov (eds): Landscapes in Flux. Central and Eastern Europe in Antiquity. Oxford, 41–58. 1999 What is a tell? Settlement in fifth millennium Bulgaria. In: J. Brück–M. Goodman (eds): Making Places in the Prehistoric World: Themes
This paper argues that the standard etymology of Vedic bravi ‘to say, to speak, to tell’ from Proto-Indo-European *mleu̯h2- ‘to speak’ (and its connection with Avestan mrao- ‘to say, to speak’) cannot be upheld, since it is based on an irregular consonant change that cannot be independently motivated and explained. As an alternative, two different PIE verbal roots will be proposed, *melH-u- → mleu̯H- ‘to say, to speak’ and *bleu̯h2/3-‘to speak or to call’, that provide phonologically and semantically regular bases for the words involved.
The present study discusses five Bronze Age sandstone casting moulds from the Hatvan-Strázsa-hegy tell (Hungary, Heves County), which have been acquired by the Ministry of Defence Institute and Museum of Military History in the 1990s. One of the moulds is a semi-finished product, showing a negative of a dagger hilt pommel. The other four moulds were suitable to cast large triangular-shaped dagger blades and they can be arranged into two pairs, based on their dimensions and the outlines of their negatives. According to macroscopic observations, these finds have been used for a period of time, proving that advanced metallurgy was present on the Strázsa-hegy site during the Rei. Br. A. Besides they provide a chance for an evaluation of these significant objects that do not abound in parallels. The main goal of this paper is to discuss and reconstruct the life-cycle of daggers, based on macroscopic data obtained from the moulds and their parallel finds.
X-ray fluorescence analysis study of 44 archaeological pottery samples collected from Tell Jendares site north-west of Syria
has been carried out. Four samples of the total previous investigated samples were obtained from the kiln found on Tell Jendares
site. Seventeen different chemical elements were determined. The XRF results have been processed using two multivariate statistical
cluster and factor analysis methods in order to determine the similarities and correlation between the selected samples based
on their elemental composition. The methodology successfully separates the samples where three distinct chemical groups were
it is reasonable to assume that these, essentially reproductive, metaphors tell the full, or even most interesting, story of what it means to learn in contemporary society.
Over the centuries, alternatives to this reproductive metaphor have
Thermoluminescence (TL) dating and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) techniques have been utilized for the study of archaeological
pottery fragment samples from Tell Saka Site, which is located at 25 km south east of Damascus city, Syria. Four samples were
chosen randomly from the site, two from third level and two from fourth level for dating using TL technique and the results
were in good agreement with the date assigned by archaeologists. Twenty-eight sherds were analyzed using PIXE technique in
order to identify and characterize the elemental composition of pottery excavated from third and fourth levels, using 3 MV
tandem accelerator in Damascus. The analysis provided almost 20 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni,
Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb). However, only 14 elements as follows: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb were
chosen for statistical analysis and have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods, Cluster and Factor analysis.
The studied pottery were classify into two well defined groups.
The study fills the gaps in the lingustical database bearing on agriculture in the age of the Ŗgveda. Several corrections of existing standpoints have been made concerning purely philological issues as well as the semantical field of certain agricultural terms. The unbiassed reassessment of etymology of some terms reveals that beside the terms of Indo-European origin there are terms from extinct languages while the number of items of Dravidian origin is meagre and the Austro-Asiatic influence can be excluded. Language contacts with the Bactria-Margiana Complex (BMAC) must be taken into consideration. The all-around analysis of lingustic data and archaeological evidence together with the observations of historical ethnography allows us to form a more balanced view of economic conditions: although pastoralism played a dominant part in the life of Indo-Aryan speakers in the Panjab in the second half of the second millennium B.C., agriculture including wheat production gained also an established position in the region. Both the negligence and the overestimation of agriculture in this system are erroneous viewpoints.
The linguistic research of colour names is a popular topic. It contributes to a better understanding of the history and development of languages and the culture of native speakers. This study deals with Kazakh colour names from the aspect of historical linguistics. First, the paper introduces the symbolic interpretation of Kazakh colours, then the categories and the functions of words derived from colour names are dealt with. Compounds that contain colour names are also in the focus of the present research. In the case of compounds, a specific usage of the colour names forming a particular meaning comes into view, which is a very interesting semantic field in Kazakh.