. In: J. Chapman–P. Dolukhanov (eds): Landscapes in Flux. Central and Eastern Europe in Antiquity. Oxford, 41–58. 1999 What is a tell? Settlement in fifth millennium Bulgaria. In: J. Brück–M. Goodman (eds): Making Places in the Prehistoric World: Themes
Authors:E. Bakraji, M. Itlas, A. Abdulrahman, H. Issa, and R. Abboud
X-ray fluorescence analysis study of 44 archaeological pottery samples collected from Tell Jendares site north-west of Syria
has been carried out. Four samples of the total previous investigated samples were obtained from the kiln found on Tell Jendares
site. Seventeen different chemical elements were determined. The XRF results have been processed using two multivariate statistical
cluster and factor analysis methods in order to determine the similarities and correlation between the selected samples based
on their elemental composition. The methodology successfully separates the samples where three distinct chemical groups were
Authors:E. Bakraji, M. Ahmad, N. Salman, D. Haloum, N. Boutros, and R. Abboud
Thermoluminescence (TL) dating and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) techniques have been utilized for the study of archaeological
pottery fragment samples from Tell Saka Site, which is located at 25 km south east of Damascus city, Syria. Four samples were
chosen randomly from the site, two from third level and two from fourth level for dating using TL technique and the results
were in good agreement with the date assigned by archaeologists. Twenty-eight sherds were analyzed using PIXE technique in
order to identify and characterize the elemental composition of pottery excavated from third and fourth levels, using 3 MV
tandem accelerator in Damascus. The analysis provided almost 20 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni,
Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb). However, only 14 elements as follows: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb were
chosen for statistical analysis and have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods, Cluster and Factor analysis.
The studied pottery were classify into two well defined groups.
The study fills the gaps in the lingustical database bearing on agriculture in the age of the Ŗgveda. Several corrections of existing standpoints have been made concerning purely philological issues as well as the semantical field of certain agricultural terms. The unbiassed reassessment of etymology of some terms reveals that beside the terms of Indo-European origin there are terms from extinct languages while the number of items of Dravidian origin is meagre and the Austro-Asiatic influence can be excluded. Language contacts with the Bactria-Margiana Complex (BMAC) must be taken into consideration. The all-around analysis of lingustic data and archaeological evidence together with the observations of historical ethnography allows us to form a more balanced view of economic conditions: although pastoralism played a dominant part in the life of Indo-Aryan speakers in the Panjab in the second half of the second millennium B.C., agriculture including wheat production gained also an established position in the region. Both the negligence and the overestimation of agriculture in this system are erroneous viewpoints.
The linguistic research of colour names is a popular topic. It contributes to a better understanding of the history and development of languages and the culture of native speakers. This study deals with Kazakh colour names from the aspect of historical linguistics. First, the paper introduces the symbolic interpretation of Kazakh colours, then the categories and the functions of words derived from colour names are dealt with. Compounds that contain colour names are also in the focus of the present research. In the case of compounds, a specific usage of the colour names forming a particular meaning comes into view, which is a very interesting semantic field in Kazakh.
The geometric mean of fitness is considered to be the main indicator of evolutionary change in stochastic models. However, this measure was initially derived for models with infinite population sizes, where the long-term evolutionary behavior can be described with certainty. In this paper we begin an exploration of the limitations and utility of this approach to evolution in finite populations and discuss alternate methods for predicting evolutionary dynamics. We reanalyze a model of lottery competition under environmental stochasticity by including population finiteness, and show that the geometric mean predictions do not always agree with those based on the fixation probability of rare alleles. Further, the fixation probability can be inserted into adaptive dynamics equations to derive the mean state of the population. We explore the effects of increasing population size on these conclusions through simulations. These simulations show that for small population sizes the fixation probability accurately predicts the course of evolution, but as population size becomes large the geometric mean predictions are upheld. The two approaches are reconciled because the time scale on which the fixation probability approach applies becomes very large as population size grows.