Described in the study is a burial of the Sopot Culture. The solitary burial found on the settlement and its rich inventory of finds (vessels, a Spondylus pendant and beads) provides the springboard for an overview of the culture’s burial rite and grave goods as well as its cultural contacts. One of the unique traits of the burial is that it incorporates both the Linearbandkeramik traditions of the Transdanubian Sopot Culture and the typical finds of the Slavonian Sopot Culture.
Authors:Katalin Sebők, Attila Kreiter, and Orsolya Viktorik
An uncommon vessel was found in one of the graves on a settlement of the Tisza culture at Pusztataskony-Ledence 1, near Kisköre-Gát. The present study traces the cultural and chronological connections of the find, and attempts, by a comparative analysis of distinct elements of the site’s burial rite, to determine the character of the cultural effects expressed through them. A petrographic analysis of ceramic samples collected from the material of grave 1-718 and the settlement, written by A. Kreiter and O. Viktorik, is completing the article.
temetkezési szokásokhoz – A fülkesíros temetkezés (Bemerkungen zu den frühawarenzeitlichen Bestattungssitten – Die Stollengräber) . In: Lorinczy G. (szerk.): A kokortól a középkorig . Szeged, 311 – 335
The documents of the Esterházy and Nádasdy families kept in the Hungarian National Archives are an inexhaustible source of Hungarian culture and art history. To this group belong the three batches of sources giving an insight into the funeral ceremonies of the Esterházys in the 17th century. Sources on the burial customs of the Esterházy family began to be published in the 20th century. In the focus of interest was the battle of Vezekény against the Turks in which four young Esterházys were killed on 26 August 1652 including the head of the family, László. Art works connected to his death, such as the weapons and outfit he wore in the battle, his portrait on the catafalque and the so-called Vezekény dish ordered in commemoration of him, were put up for various historical exhibitions. Two engravings of the funeral procession of the four Esterházys killed in action and buried in Nagyszombat on 26 November 1652 and their castrum doloris are also among the important sources. Using the prints made by Mauritz Lang after Hans Rudolf Miller's drawings, art historian Péter Szabó reconstructed the funeral procession in his book entitled Végtisztesség [Last Tribute] (Budapest 1989). The Esterházy family designated several places of last repose for its members in the 17th century. At the beginning they were buried in the family crypt of the Jesuit church at Nagyszombat [today Trnava, Slovakia] built by palatine Nicholas Esterházy. At the end of the century Pál Esterházy had a crypt built in the Franciscan church at the centre of the family estate in Kismarton [today Eisenstadt, Austria]. The first of the three groups of archival sources is the description of palatine Nicholas Esterházy's funeral procession in the Hungarian and Latin languages. The aristocrat died in 1645 and was buried in Nagyszombat on 11 December. The ceremony was organized by eight directors in kinship with the family, the master of ceremonies being Ferenc Wesselényi, captain of Fülek [today Filakovo, Slovakia]. The procession included the troops and representatives of the Hungarian aristocratic families, the council of Nagyszombat, the local guilds, the teachers and students of the academy, the leaders and bodies of the Catholic Church, deputies of the counties and the marches, and the Esterházys. Various emblems were included in the procession representing Esterházy's military rank (helmet, spurs, sword, stick) and public office as palatine (mace, sword). Separate roles were assigned to the flags including the national flag and to two alter egos who represented Nicholas Esterházy the person. The second group of sources includes the funeral procession and costs of count László Esterházy in Hungarian. The procession is very similar to the palatine's: the participants were nearly the same and the funeral ceremony was also similar. However, the written source and the funeral procession reconstructed by Péter Szabó on the basis of the engraving do not tally at several points. The costs of burial were 8615 forints, a large sum in the age. The paraphernalia were mainly bought in Vienna close to Kismarton. The expenses reveal that as was customary, the family and the familiares were dressed in new clothes and the artisans were given large amounts of money. The third source is the Hungarian account of the death and burial of baron Farkas Esterházy. A lower ranked collateral of the Esterházys, Farkas died unexpectedly in Lőcse [today Levoča, Slovakia] in 1670. Owing to the danger of infection, the funeral had to be staged quickly. Since the Catholic magnate could not be buried in Lutheran Lőcse, Farkas was buried in nearby Szepeshely [today Spišska Kapitula]. The funeral was organized by a relative living in the vicinity, the widow of György Homonnai Drugeth born countess Mária Esterházy. The procession included the locally available noblemen and the representatives of the town of Lőcse. The first two funerals in Nagyszombat were monumental, representative events, while Farkas Esterházy's was far more modest. It can be concluded from the 18 surviving accounts of funeral processions that in the area of the Hungarian Kingdom there was a relatively unified custom of funeral culture modeled first of all on the burial ceremonies of the Habsburg rulers.
In recent decades, especially in German language areas, several monographs and studies have stressed the source value in political and social history of the representative relics of burial places and sepulchral art. The resting places of Hungarian aristocrats of the early modern age are also more than mere (style historical, iconographic) sources of “traditional” art historical investigations, as is also pointed out by several recent scientific works in Hungary.
Lord Chief Justice Ferenc III Nádasdy (1623–1671) had the Nádasdy family mausoleum built in Léka (Lockenhaus, Austria). The converted aristocrat commissioned Pietro Orsolino, master builder from Siena, to erect a church and monastery for the Augustinian hermits and the population of the small Transdanubian village. The innovation of the crypt completed in 1669 lies in admitting solely the remains of the Nádasdy family members according to the original concept of the chief justice, thus becoming the first family mausoleum in the crypt of a church running the whole length of the church space.
When Ferenc Nádasdy was executed for his part in the Wesselényi conspiracy against the court in Vienna in 1671, there were two tombs in the central space of the crypt to which an ornamental staircase led from the middle of the nave of the oval church. The chief justice had the double tomb (c. 1562) of his great grandparents palatine Tamás Nádasdy and Orsolya Kanizsay – an outstanding specimen of 16th century Hungarian sepulchral art – transferred from the chapel of Léka castle. The tomb is covered with a late gothic slab showing the palatine and his wife kneeling at the stem of the cross. The monumental baroque tomb of Ferenc Nádasdy and his wife Anna Julianna Esterházy (c. 1669) was probably made by masters of the Léka guild of builders and masons.
Research of the past years has shown that extensively travelled and highly cultured Ferenc Nádasdy was one of the most conscious aristocratic patrons of the art in Hungary who put the arts sharp-wittedly in the service of his own representation and the political propaganda of the Hungarian Kingdom. In his residences (Keresztúr, Sárvár, Seibersdorf, Pottendorf) he set up picture galleries with different representative goals each; as the holder of the advowson, he had churches (Lorettom, Léka) and chapels (Mariazell, St Stephen’s chapel) founded and ordered altar paintings. He relied on printing to disseminate internationally the historical continuity of the Hungarian statehood threatened by the Ottoman Empire (Mausoleum) and the unity of the Hungarian nation of the estates (series of Widemann portraits).
The crypt of the Léka church was the place of the reverence of ancestors and the expression of Ferenc Nádasdy’s ambition to become palatine. By positioning his and his wife’s tomb opposite his great-grandfather’s in the crypt he founded, he implied his wish to become similar to his forefather. During his political career he failed to acquire the title of palatine, but the “adopter” of the art patron model created by Nádasdy, his brother-in-law Pál Esterházy attained it. Similarly to Nádasdy, Esterházy also had a family crypt built later in the centre of his residence Kismarton (Eisenstadt, Austria) emulating in concept the example of Léka and the Graz mausoleum of Ferdinand II as regards form.
-oromdűlői 10–11. századi temető (Das Gräberfeld von Szegvár-Oromdűlő aus dem 10. bis 11. Jahrhundert). MFMÉ–StudArch 3, 201–286.
Bende L.–Lőrinczy G.–Türk A. A. 2002 Honfoglalás kori temetkezés Kiskundorozsma-Hosszúhát-halomról (Eine
Jelen tanulmány a Bonyhádtól (Tolna megye) északra fekvő Szöcske-szántók dűlőben talált kora avar korra keltezhető, viszonylag gazdag melléklettel bíró sírnak és mellékleteinek a leírását tartalmazza. A temetkezés idejét a sírból előkerült leletek alapján a kora avar korra, a 6. század végére – 7. század elejére lehet tenni. A leletegyüttesben a tarsolyzáróként szolgáló egykori bizánci füstölőhöz tartozó elem és az ezüstcsésze a Balkán bizánci térségéből, egy kirabolt templom felszereléséből származhat és egy olyan személy leletegyütteséhez tartozhatott, aki maga is részt vett az avarok balkáni hadjárataiban, vagy ilyen személyekkel kapcsolatban állt.
Presented and discussed here is a burial with a relatively rich array of grave goods dating from the Early Avar period found in an area known as Szöcske-szántók lying north of Bonyhád (County Tolna). On the testimony of the finds recovered from the burial, the grave can be assigned to the Early Avar period, to the late 6th–early 7th century. An element taken from a Byzantine censer that was repurposed to serve as a purse clasp and the silver bowl obviously originated from a looted church in Byzantium’s Balkanic province and were the possessions of a person who had participated in the Avars’ Balkanic campaigns or who had contact with these individuals.
Den Gegenstand der Studie bilden zwei sog. „Benefiziarierabzeichen“, die im NO-Teil der Provinz Pannonia inferior, in Sárszentmiklós (Kom. Fejér) und Zsámbék (Kom. Pest), gefunden wurden, in je einem kaiserzeitlichen Wagengrab. Der Autor weist nach, dass diese Abzeichen ursprünglich an den begrabenen Wagen befestigt waren und die einstigen Wagenbesitzer (zugleich die vermutlichen Verstorbenen der Gräber) Unteroffiziere im principalis-Chargen (wie frumentarii, beneficiarii oder speculatores) waren, die man ins Statthalterbüro kommandiert hatte. Mit Hilfe dieser Tatsache konnte nicht nur eine neue, der Funktion nach gesonderte Gruppe der principalis-Abzeichen definiert, sondern auch die Reliefs anders beleuchtet werden, die principales auf ihren Dienstreisen auf dem Wagen sitzend darstellten. Auf Grund der nicht in direkt militärischem Kontext (z. B. in Gräbern, Heiligtümern) gefundenen Abzeichen hat der Autor versucht, einen Unterschied zwischen dem Eigentumsrecht der tatsächlich als Lanzenabzeichen getragenen und der nur mit Emblemen versehenen, meist zur Tracht oder Ausrüstung der principales gehörenden Kleinfunde (wie Fibeln, Gürtel- und Schwertriemenbeschläge) zu machen. Die Bestattung mit dem Wagen war aristokratischer Bestattungsbrauch der lokalen vornehmen Eravisker. So gehörten auch die Wagen besitzenden principales von Sárszentmiklós und Zsámbék zu dieser Stammeselite, die sich schon seit Ende des 1. Jahrhunderts zunehmend enger mit dem Heer verflochten hatte und seit der zweiten Hälfte des 2. Jahrhunderts das Statthalterbüro mit über gute Lokalkenntnisse verfügenden Unteroffizieren versah. Im Appendix der Studie werden auch vier neue Bronzebeschläge veröffentlicht, die zur Ausrüstung pannonischer principales gehörten.