This essay presents a study of the presence of entheogenic mushroom representations in the sculptural iconography of some ancient temples of India, the Khajuraho Temples, and their sanctuaries. The essay proposes
This article intends to examine the founding and functioning of the Buddhist temple in Saint Petersburg at the turn of the 20th century presented within the context of a cosmopolitan urban landscape. Moreover, it demonstrates the forms and aims of the sociopolitical activity of scholars originating from the Rozen School, which contributed to the emergence of the temple. As an example of specifically Russian orientalism, this scholarly activity enabled thinking in the categories of ethnic pluralism and principles of multiculturalism in the national policy of the Russian Empire in the discussed period, thus constituting one of the key elements which enabled the foundation of the temple.
Red-thermoluminescence (RTL) dating was applied to quartz grains from a flat roof-tile of “Shin-Yakushiji” temple, Nara, built
in Japan, probably 1258 years ago. Based on overlapping patterns with other roof-tiles, one flat roof-tile was separated into
several zones. The equivalent doses were accurately evaluated to be 4.4–5.1 Gy for each zone. The evaluation of annual doses
has been done under the consideration of overlapped numbers of roof-tiles and soil layers under the roof-tiles. Evaluated
RTL ages were in good agreement with the construction date of the temple. The present evaluated age was the youngest one within
several ages we previously have been deduced from the RTL dating.
Authors:A. F. Hamed, H. M. Shafik, and A. S. Shaaban
The Karnak Temple is a tourist attraction site in Luxor, Egypt. Sacred Lake lies inside the Karnak Temple, it is an important lake from both historical and touristical point of views. About 4,000 years ago the ancient Egyptians used this lake as a saint place. The priests were washing in the lake four to five times a day. The lake area is about 3,200 m2. The lake was shallow before 1985 and the floras of the lake had been monospecific cyanoprokaryote (Microcystis flos-aquae or Spirulina labyrinthiformis). In 1985 Nile water was circulated through the lake by the so-called French project. In 1993, the pumping of Nile water was stopped and the water became stored and not renewed again. The increase in the water level of the lake since 1985 followed by stopping the water circulation in 1993 have a negative impact, making the lake similar to a fishpond. Now, sixteen taxa of cyanobacteria and Chlorophyta were determined in the lake together with dense vegetation of the aquatic plant Potamogeton pectinatus L. during the two expeditions in April and October 1996. The presence of this diversified flora, especially the bad smell resulting from the growth of algae and aquatic plant has adverse effects on tourism. Restoration of the ancient picture of the lake is recommended and some suggestions were emphasised in this study. We would like to call attention for protection of the lake by continuous cleaning. This suggestion will help in restoring the lake to its ancient status.
The rituals carried out on the occasion of the establishment of a new Roman city prove the fact that there was a prescribed regulation. The location, orientation, as well as the scenography, translates into facts gestures and human processions with sacred character; these are the expression of a symbolic geography of religious type.
The erection of sacred buildings in Colonia Sarmizegetusa was carried out during the reign of Trajan (its founder) and Severus Alexander. For the following period (Maximinus-Aurelianus), the archaeological evidence suggests the fact that the emphasis was not placed on constructing new religious buildings, but on restoring the already existing ones. The expression of religious piety persisted, and one can make reference again to the archaeological evidence, more particular to shrines, and statues. This context proves the fact that the religious life continued its cycle. However, in AD 235, at the latest, Sarmizegetusa witnessed the construction of the most numerous temples. It is noteworthy to mention that this construction boom coincides with the period when Sarmizegetusa is granted the title of Metropolis.
This paper discusses the foundation of the Library of Alexandria, probably to be dated under Ptolemy I, and argues for its location within the temple complex of the Mouseion. Modelled in part on Aristotle’s library in Athens, the Library is placed in its Alexandrian context as a royal project which may have had Egyptian precedents but was nevertheless central to the Greek cultural development of Hellenistic Egypt.
Suetonius describes the lives of Caesars according to categories such as antecedents, birth, career, achievements, morals, religion, appareance, and death. In my paper I examine the function of religion in The Deified Augustus of Suetonius. Firstly I list the places where phenomena concerning religion appear. Then I analyse the attitude of Augustus towards religions; e.g. he took dreams very seriously, and regarded certain auspices and omens as infallible. Suetonius treats the religious beliefs of Augustus long because he regards them as very important. Augustus wanted to enhance the sacred character of his principate, therefore he acquired membership in several priesthoods.
In the 2nd and 3rd centuries, Poetovio (modern town of Ptuj in north-eastern Slovenia) was a melting pot of various cultures due to the arrival of various peoples. Mithraea are undoubtedly the most recognisable monuments of Poetovio. As many as five or perhaps even seven Mithraea were discovered in Ptuj and its immediate surroundings: two of them (Breg na Ptuju, Hajdina) are preserved in situ, on the site where they were discovered. During the construction of the local sewage system in 2011, some findings that can be attributed to the Mithras cult were unearthed in the vicinity of the first Mithraeum in Spodnja Hajdina.
The paper attempts to
reconstruct the room programme of the dismantled valley temple of Sesostris II
based on the data preserved on hieratic papyri from the site and a comparison
with the mortuary temple of Sesostris III at South Abydos and the ka-chapel at
Ezbet Rushdi. A temple inspectional protocol discussed in the study is
interpreted as a reference to the valley temple and the eastern temple at the
pyramid, the offering hall of which is identified as the 'august chamber' of
McDonough links Carnaë’s cult to the Matralia, by emphasizing their contiguity in the Roman religious calendar: Carnaë was celebrated at the calends of June, just ten days before the ceremony in the temple of Mater Matuta. The link between the two is mainly