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The name and the verses of Phaedrus were unknown in the Middle Ages but his fables were widespread in several prosified versions. One of these is the collection of Romulus, which is of great importance because it has preserved some lost Phaedrian fables and various other collections have derived from it. This paper examines the textual tradition of these and of Phaedrus’ fables. I attempt to present some problems about the tradition and offer a solution to these questions.

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The present article pays homage to Professor Louis Ligeti, founder of Mongolian Studies at the University of Budapest, who passed away twenty-five years ago. He has been known also as one of the first scholars who carried our stationary filed research in Inner Mongolia. His disciples followed this tradition of fieldwork and often visited Mongolia in order to collect written and oral materials among the Mongolian ethnic groups. Since the early nineties a joint expedition — organised by the Department of Inner Asian Studies of the University of Budapest, in collaboration with the institutions of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences — has been working among the various ethnic groups of Mongolia. During the twenty years of fieldwork a large amount of records concerning the dialects, folklore, religious systems, material culture, etc. of these ethnic groups has been accumulated in the archives of the Expedition. The results of the field research have been published in different academic journals and conference proceedings. This time some of the Darkhad shamanic texts, recorded by the author and her research team during several study trips, will be presented in the investigation-frame of the sacral communication.

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The article deals with the main principles according to which Mongolian sounds are rendered into Chinese in the Sino-Mongolian glossary Dada yu/Beilu yiyu (late 16th–early 17th century) where one of the late Middle Mongolian dialects is reflected. Three such principles are distinguished by the author: (1) principle of phonetic identity (the Chinese and Mongolian segments completely coincide with each other by their features); (2) principle of phonetic substitution in its two varieties: weak phonetic substitution (the Chinese and Mongolian segments differ from each other in only one distinctive feature) and strong phonetic substitution (the Chinese and Mongolian segments are distinguished from each other by two or more features); (3) principle of zero marking (the Mongolian segment is in no way rendered into the Chinese transcription because of the impossibility of its notation by means of Chinese). The influence of different stages of the phonetic development of Chinese on the glossary’s system of transcriptions is also emphasised, such as Standard Chinese, Late Ming Guanhua, and Ancient Mandarin.

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The Slovene ballad Animals Bury the Hunter is an animal narrative song of jocular character. It tells of the burial of a hunter and of a funeral procession not composed of humans but wild animals (a bear, foxes, hares, a wolf, cranes and partridges, song birds, etc.) who seem to derive great joy from the event. The analysis of the song's 31 variants reveals the changes made to the song over the course of time, as it survived through different historical periods and spread throughout Slovenia. I attempt to show that the ballad was used as a model for painted beehive panels featuring the same motif. In addition to the analysis, I am concerned with the sociological and ethical elements of the ballad. The paper proposes at least three possible theses: 1. The song is part of the conception of a topsy-turvy world, where the roles and mutual relationships of people and animals are reversed in an ironic sociological view of the world.  2. The song is a critique of one class by another: peasants mocking hunters who belong to a different social stratum. 3. The song is a representation of “pre-Cartesian” times, when animals were not “mere machines” without feelings, to be treated by man as objects with no ethical significance. It points to the ethical aspects of the human treatment of animals.

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The phraseological units, together with their specific system of considerations and means, are analysed by several linguistic and extra-linguistic sciences. The fact that the phraseological level of language proves to be analysable from the point of view of many branches of science, also has the consequence that within each of these researches there is the opportunity for interdisciplinary research, and sometimes the use of all these points of view is inevitable.This paper is part of my research examining the phraseme-use of first of all non-literary autobiographies of the twentieth century Hungarian literature from Romania, using means of linguistics and folklore. The paper tries to map the typology and variants of phraseological units in one of the written versions of Transylvanian Hungarian living speech. The examined texts are parts of folk written records, they bear the features of living language and, in spite of their topic and stylistic differences, they form a well-definable special text group.In this paper I am examining the textual functions of proverbs and linguistic configurations of proverbial nature in order to emphasize my earlier observations connected to proverbs with the concrete analysis of a text group.After a short revision of the referring literature concerning the examined material, I am trying to answer the following questions:

  1. 1. What kind of textual functions do proverbs have?
  2. 2. How does the context influence the meaning of the proverbs and their way of use?
  3. 3. What kind of non-standard variants of proverbs are to be found, what kind of theoretical observations can be formulated in connection with them?

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This paper reveals little-known episodes from A. Peshkovsky's scientific biography and analyses some fragments of his books and articles in the 1920s and 1930s that became the focus of linguistic discussions and showed ambiguous ideological situation in the science of that time. Special attention is paid to the formation of A. Peshkovsky as a linguist and methodist. His first works on “school and scientific grammar” that laid the foundations of the modern approach to the study of the theory and practice of syntax are analysed.

It is noted that the studies by A. Peshkovsky teetered at the level of implementing the ideas of the old Moscow linguistic school of academicians Fortunatov and Shakhmatov, while gravitating toward the insight of A. Potebnya and yet showing at the same time a different way of understanding grammatical ideas. The author claims that A. Peshkovsky went from the traditional diachronic analysis in the direction of the formal approach, while not abandoning “the psychological perception of the word”. A. Peshkovsky, a reformer taking a stand in his search and linguistic experiments against the Marrist and tunnel-visioned understanding of the tasks of Soviet linguistics and methodological science, was subjected to unfair criticism for his stance.

The discussions that took place at that time testify to the consistency and scientific integrity of the scientist's views in the era of the struggle against “eclecticism”, “formalism”, and “incorrigible Indo-Europeanism”. The paper presents some instances of correspondence disputes by V. Voloshinov and M. Bakhtin with A. Peshkovsky on the issues in relationship of grammar and stylistics. His opponents believed that “grammar detached from the semantic and stylistic side of speech inevitably degenerates into scholasticism”. Drawing on materials from archives and personal collection, the author of this paper gives unique facts of the lexicographical activity of A. Peshkovsky in the early 1920s related to his work on the explanatory dictionary of the Russian literary language (not published).

The closing part of the paper analyses the dispute between L. Timofeev and A. Peshkovsky. It is stated that “the new theory of the rhythm of prose” by A. Peshkovsky and his works on psychophonetics caused an ambiguous reaction in the philological community and contributed to the activation of research seeking for a “system of division of prose into units” and other experiments on the study of literary texts. Consideration is also given to the works by A. Peshkovsky in the 1930s, in which the scientist solved new problems in the field of formal characteristics of words and word combinations, wrote about the functioning of literary speech as well as the role of intonation in the formation of the syntactic structure of the sentence. Emphasis is laid on the originality and experimental character of many theses by A. Peshkovsky further developed in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

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This paper analyzes G. Vinokur’s scientific heritage. The main focus is on the development of his ideas in the field of linguistic construction: from the first attempts at “linguistic technology” speech and the reform of traditional approaches to literature to the establishment of philology as a science. The scientist significantly contributed to sociolinguistics and the ecology of language, style and poetic linguistics, philological criticism and textology. His innovation is remarkable in the study and interpretation of the history and the theory of verbal culture.

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): Tanulmányok a mai magyar nyelv szövegtana köréből [Papers on the textology of present-day Hungarian], 203-30. Tankönyvkiadó, Budapest. A kérdő mondatok szemantikájáról és pragmatikájáról [On the semantics and

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. 1980 . Contrastive Textology: Comparative Discourse Analysis in Applied Linguistics . Heidelberg : Julius Groos . Hartmann , R. R. K. 1981 . Contrastive

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szövegtanig. Tanulmányok Kocsány Piroska tiszteletére [From grammar to textology. Papers in honour of Piroska Kocsány], 322-35. Kossuth Egyetemi Kiadó, Debrecen. Nyelvtörténetírás és történeti szövegnyelvészet

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