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19 195 201 Wang, L., Flores, R.A. 1999. Effect of different wheat classes and their flour milling streams on textural properties of flour tortillas

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quality parametres such as texture, colour, odor, and flavour of sucuks are formed during this period. Colour and texture attributes of sucuks are the two most important factors in customer satisfaction ( Bozkurt

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This study aims to evaluate dairy desserts with (11 g kg −1 ) and without dietary fibres by instrumental measurements of texture and colour and sensory analysis. To maintain a similar texture to that of commercial desserts without fibres, the composition of thickening (corn starch, xanthan and guar gums) and gelling (carrageenan) agents in the basic formulation was also studied. Dietary fibres of bamboo, inulin, wheat, apple, Psyllium and chitosan were tested. Sensory characteristics were evaluated by a non-trained panel. Appearance, flavour, texture and preference were scored using an unstructured line scale. Texture and surface colour were analysed by a Texture Analyser-xT2i and a tristimulus colourimeter (Minolta CR 300). Sensory attributes showed significant differences among treatments. The dessert with chitosan gave the lowest sensory scores. For stress at rupture, the dessert with Psyllium fibre showed the highest value, while the one with chitosan gave the lowest. Apple fibre led to a brownish colour. Panellists preferred inulin or bamboo desserts. Addition of inulin or bamboo fibres to dairy desserts is a good alternative to increase the daily intake of dietary fibres.

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Applying several hydrocolloids in ascending concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1% w/w flour basis) to bread making procedure was considered. Effect of hydrocolloids [guar, xanthan gum, carboxylmethylcellulose (CMC), and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)] as bread improver on Barbari (Iranian bread) was analysed in terms of microstructure. Image analysis parameters, hardness, and microstructure of fresh bread were analysed. The results confirmed the ability of hydrocolloids for improving fresh bread quality. Among all used hydrocolloids, HPMC and CMC produced the softest texture, smoothest and continuous structure, and improved overall the bread quality.

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The texture changes during the initial phase of blanching of potatoes, carrots and green peas at different blanching times (0–240 s) and temperatures (85 °C, 95 °C, 100 °C) were investigated. The breaking force (N) was determined by compression or Back extrusion tests with an Instron texture tester. Electronmicroscopic studies (SEM) were made to support the interpretation of the results.For each vegetable several sections of changes of the breaking force (lnF) were identified. For potatoes a three phase change of the breaking force by all temperatures (85 °C, 95 °C, 100 °C) was observed. In the first of the 3 different observed stages of potato blanching the breaking forces increased with time (0–40 s). In the second and third stage of the blanching process of potato a linear relationship was found between the logarithm of the breaking force and the blanching time. The second phase observed was faster (40–160 s) than the consecutive slower third phase (160–240 s).For green peas the change of the breaking force (lnF) can be described by two consecutive first rate reactions. A faster decreasing period between 0–25 s was followed by a slower decreasing one between 70–140 s. Between the first and second stage of the blanching process there was an initial lag period (25–70 s), which will not be described here. In the period after 140 s, there was not any change, this period is constant.For carrots the fastest change can be observed at 100 °C compared to the results at 85 and 95 °C. A three-phase curve was observed as well. An initial lag period (0–90 s) was followed by a faster (90–190 s) and a slower (190–240 s) decreasing one. In the second and third stage of the blanching process of carrots a linear relationship was found. For the changes of the breaking force (lnF) a kinetical approach was applied, reaction rate constants and apparent activation energies were calculated. The kinetical approach helps to compare and forecast changes at different process conditions.

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Abstract  

Shrimp continues to be the most important commodity traded in value terms, accounting for 16.5% of the total value of internationally traded fishery products in 2004. Despite this importance of shrimp, literature is almost lacking on reports dealing with changes in functional properties and quality caused by heating shrimps while influence of freezing has been investigated more in depth. Therefore, objective of the study was cooking shrimp to different core temperatures in the range 30–80°C and monitoring changes in quality by measuring colour and texture attributes. DSC curves taken on differently heated shrimp differed markedly. With increasing temperature the enthalpy of denaturation decreased significantly.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
L. Darnay
,
A. Tóth
,
B. Salamon
,
K. Papik
,
G. Oros
,
G. Jónás
,
K. Horti
,
K. Koncz
, and
L. Friedrich

The aim of this study was to show how microbial transglutaminase (mTG) can be used as an effective texture-modifier for two popular Hungarian products: Trappist cheese and frankfurter. In both cases we investigated how components of these products, milkfat in cheese and phosphate in frankfurter, can be substituted by mTG. Therefore, Trappist cheese samples were produced from cow milk of 2.8%, 3.5%, and 5% milk fat. The effect of ripening was evaluated with Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) and sensory evaluation (scoring test, 10 trained panellists). Springiness and cohesiveness values were significantly higher by enzyme-treated semi-hard cheese samples at lower milk fat levels. Sensory evaluation showed that the enzyme-treatment led to higher scores by cheese samples made from cow milk of 3.5% and 5% milk fat. Frankfurter was made with 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, and 0.7% tetrasodium pyrophosphate, and partly enzyme-treated with 0.2% commercial mTG enzyme preparation. Our results showed that mTG is able to significantly improve hardness and crunchiness by frankfurters made with 0.1% phosphate addition. Our sensory evaluation suggests that mTG and phosphate should be applied in combination in order to have a final product with recognisably more homogeneous texture.

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replacing is the use of alternative sweetening agents that provide less energy per gram than sugar ( Buttriss, 2017 ). However, delivering the same texture and sugar-like sweetness with partial or full sugar reduction is a challenging task as sweeteners

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Imaging
Authors:
Bettina Katalin Budai
,
Veronica Frank
,
Sonaz Shariati
,
Bence Fejér
,
Ambrus Tóth
,
Vince Orbán
,
Viktor Bérczi
, and
Pál Novák Kaposi

, medical images store and evaluate more detail than what is visible to the trained eyes of specialists. Texture analysis is a mathematical method, which can quantify the distribution patterns of gray-level intensity and the interrelationships between voxels

Open access

A három fogalom – struktúra, textúra, faktúra – esetében az összetartozás érdekesebb lehetőségnek tűnik, mint a megkülönböztetés. A közösségként értelmezett együttes fogalmi tartalmat jelölöm a textúra kifejezéssel, melyről három aspektusból beszélek. Ezek a szempontok személyesek, lehet hogy összefüggenek, de lehet, hogy nem. Úgy fogom fel a témát, mint Monet a roueni katedrálist vagy a londoni Parlamentet – szeretném megmutatni tartalmának sokszínűségét. A textúra és az ornamentika összevetését az emberi gondolkodás gyönyörű kettőssége, az értelmi és érzelmi viszonyulás harmóniája ihlette. Ráció és emóció egyformán lényeges szempontok. Azok a maradandóan értékes építészeti alkotások, amelyekben e kettő egymástól elválaszthatatlan egysége ragyog. A mi korunk diszharmonikus, az értelem kizárólagossága tette egyoldalúvá. A korszellem változásának hatására a szemlélet, a közgondolkodás, az oktatás megváltozhat, de az ember alapvető beállítottsága nem. Az érzelmi tartalmak megjelenítésének egyik lehetséges eszköze a ma építészetében a textúra. A skin felfogható úgy is, mint virtuális textúra. A virtuális világ az anyagok valóságától eltávolodva megteremti a maga művi felületeit. Érdekes megfigyelni azt a folyamatot, amelyben a valóságos világ eleven textúrái kódolt építészeti üzenetekké válnak. Ezek egyfelől az absztrakció lenyűgöző teljesítményei, de másfelől és ugyanakkor élettelen, ezáltal eleve időleges próbálkozások. Textúra és idő – költői kapcsolat. Mint a kagylóban a tenger zúgása, magában rejti az örök körforgás szimbolikáját, a folyamatos metamorfózis általános érvényességét. „A jó épület szépen öregszik” – mondta hajdani mesterem Jurcsik Károly, és azóta számtalan esetben beláthattam ennek igazát. A szép öregedés arcát pedig a textúrák rajzolják.

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