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citrate and various cheese starter cultures . Makara J. Technol. , 16 ( 2 ): 149 – 156 . Bourne , M. ( 1978 ). Texture Profile Analysis . Food Technology , 32 : 62

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19 Scherer, R. & Sapel, J. (1998): Application of the texture profile analysis to determine the texture of sponge cakes. Getreide Mehl Brot , 52 , 351

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. ( 1980 ): Texture profile analysis of patties made from mixed and flake-cut mechanically deboned poultry meat . Poultry Sci , 59 , 69 – 76 . M AZZA , G. ( 1982

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Profile Analysis (TPA) test by TA-XTplus (Stable Micro System, Surrey, UK) Texture Analyzer with P/25 type stainless steel cylinder at room temperature. Test setting were as follows: compression with pre-test speed 2 mm/s, test speed 1 mm/s, post

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In the research area of healthier meat products a possible trend is to replace high energy density fat in formulations with substances providing less energy than fat. The aim of the producers is to obtain a product having maximum yield with similar or same organoleptic properties and structure like well-known full-fat analogues. Properties of high fat products can be restored with the use of different fat substitutes, non-meat protein, and/or hydrocolloids or starch, owing to their stabilization abilities, fat coating, and water binding, respectively. The review is aimed to summarize the effect of different fat substitutes on the processing quality, textural characteristics, and sensory properties of comminuted meat products with low lipid content.

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The fat content of Bologna-type turkey sausages was partially replaced with pea fiber or potato starch. Textural properties of full fat turkey sausage were mainly restored in sausages when fat was partially replaced with some levels of pea fiber (0.6, 1.2%) or potato starch (1.9%). Authors observed significant correlation (P<0.01) between instrumentally measured values of hardness and chewiness and sensory ratings of low fat sausages.

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Two hundred and ninety F9 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the bread wheat cultivar Gaocheng 8901 and the waxy wheat cultivar Nuomai 1 were used in determining the high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) and waxy protein subunit combinations and their effects on the dough quality and texture profile analysis (TPA) of cooked Chinese noodles. Seven alleles were detected at Glu-1 loci. There were two alleles found at each of the Wx-A1, Wx-B1 and Wx-D1 loci. Eight allelic combinations were observed for HMW-GS, LMW-GS and waxy proteins, respectively. Both the 1/7+8/5+10 and 1/7+8/5+12 combinations contributed to dough elasticity, and the 1/7+8/5+10 combination also provided better TPA characteristics. Compared to Wx protein, HMW-GS was more important on dough alveogram properties. LMW-GS significantly affected springiness and cohesiveness; HMW-GS mainly affected the hardness; Wx×LMW-GS significantly affected the springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness; HMW-GS×Wx×LMW-GS mainly influenced the springiness and chewiness. But HMW-GS×LMW-GS only affected the spinginess. These indicated the TPA of noodles was significantly affected by the interactions between glutenin and Wx proteins.

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The enrichment of bread with wheat bran as a source of dietary fibre seems to be necessary for human health, because bread is the most consumed commodity in many countries. However, wheat bran has some adverse effects on the bread quality during storage. The aim of this study was to produce barbari bread with increased nutritional value and improved texture by the addition of coated wheat bran (0.67 and 1.34% based on flour stearic acid or St1, 2 and beeswax or Bw1, 2). Bread made from uncoated wheat bran was used as control. The least crust to crumb ratio was seen for control and Bw1. Water activity and moisture content results showed that the crumb of Bw1 and control had the better moisture retention during storage. Textural properties of samples showed that there were no significant differences in the hardness of the samples (P>0.05). However, the least increase in hardness during storage was observed for stearic acid coated samples. Other texture profile analysis parameters, such as cohesiveness and springiness, showed that Bw1 and Bw2 samples had no significant changes during storage. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed the least enthalpy for Bw1 after baking (385.21 J g–1) and during storage (567.62 J g–1). Accordingly, results showed that beeswax, especially at 0.67% (based on flour), is the best shell material for bran coating in order to improve bread texture and shelf life.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: L. Darnay, A. Tóth, B. Salamon, K. Papik, G. Oros, G. Jónás, K. Horti, K. Koncz, and L. Friedrich

The aim of this study was to show how microbial transglutaminase (mTG) can be used as an effective texture-modifier for two popular Hungarian products: Trappist cheese and frankfurter. In both cases we investigated how components of these products, milkfat in cheese and phosphate in frankfurter, can be substituted by mTG. Therefore, Trappist cheese samples were produced from cow milk of 2.8%, 3.5%, and 5% milk fat. The effect of ripening was evaluated with Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) and sensory evaluation (scoring test, 10 trained panellists). Springiness and cohesiveness values were significantly higher by enzyme-treated semi-hard cheese samples at lower milk fat levels. Sensory evaluation showed that the enzyme-treatment led to higher scores by cheese samples made from cow milk of 3.5% and 5% milk fat. Frankfurter was made with 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, and 0.7% tetrasodium pyrophosphate, and partly enzyme-treated with 0.2% commercial mTG enzyme preparation. Our results showed that mTG is able to significantly improve hardness and crunchiness by frankfurters made with 0.1% phosphate addition. Our sensory evaluation suggests that mTG and phosphate should be applied in combination in order to have a final product with recognisably more homogeneous texture.

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.K., Sharma, A. & Sharma, R. (2007): Instrumental texture profile analysis (TPA) of shelled sunflower seed caramel snack using response surface methodology. Fd Sci. Technol. int. , 13 , 455–460. Sharma R

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