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The paper argues that in some specific cases the central Government, which is usually required to choose in between whether to maintain (improve) the competitiveness of the economy or to reduce governmental responsibilities, is able to manage the state budget without limiting its choice to one of the two alternatives. At present, in Hungary the possibility is given to increase tax revenues and concurrently increase competitiveness. The main discussion of the article is centered around four practical proposals intended to support the above statement:

  1. the necessity to create new jobs to (re)activate the inactive population the tax morale of the taxpayer to fulfill his obligations depends primarily on the propensity of other taxpayers to pay taxes, and therefore the abolition of the secrecy of tax declarations would improve tax morale and thus propensity to pay taxes corruption can be curtailed with strict restriction of cash payments the owners of incomes realized on domestic economic operations should not (only) pay taxes in tax havens and offshore areas, but in Hungary

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Attila Kovács, Lajos Döbrőssy, András Budai, Ágnes Cornides, and Imre Boncz

A rosszindulatú daganatos megbetegedések súlyos népegészségügyi problémát jelentenek Magyarországon. A daganatos halálozás mérséklésére a tünet- és panaszmentes személyek szervezett szűrővizsgálata a legígéretesebb stratégia. A szakterület mai állása szerint a népegészségügyi szűrővizsgálat kritériumait a mammográfiás emlőszűrés, a citológiai vizsgálatot alkalmazó méhnyakszűrés és a székletbeli rejtett vér immunkémiai kimutatásán alapuló vastagbélszűrés elégíti ki. A szájüregi daganatok és a prosztatarák korai felismerésére szolgáló epidemiológiai módszerek hatásossága máig nem bizonyított, ezért csak az orvosi gyakorlat részeként, alkalomszerűen alkalmazhatók. A korai tüdőrák felismerésére még nem rendelkezünk hatásos módszerrel, ezért nem szerepel a népegészségügy napirendjén. – A szervezett, azaz személyes meghívást, visszahívást és követést alkalmazó szűrővizsgálatok helyt kaptak a Nemzeti Népegészségügyi Programban. A népegészségügyi szűrés koncepciója összhangban van az Európai Unió irányelveivel. A szűrővizsgálati programok megszervezése, koordinálása és értékelése az Országos Tisztifőorvosi Hivatal feladata. Az elmúlt években kiépült a feladat ellátására alkalmas adminisztratív és információs rendszer, beleértve az országos szűrési nyilvántartást, az ÁNTSZ intézeteire alapozott szűrési koordinációs rendszer, valamint az országos igényeket kielégíteni képes mammográfiás és citológiai hálózat. A vastagbélszűrés feltételeinek megteremtése folyamatban van. A közlemény összefoglalja a megoldásra váró feladatokat és a szervezett szűrés várható eredményeit.

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The article examines how the roles of state institutions and state owned enterprises have been changed in Ireland since its independence, with special regard to the role of state ownership and crisis management. The history of planning and social partnership, the courses of nationalisation and privatisation and the problem of damaging the state are discussed as well. The author concludes that the crisis has not resulted in the strengthening of the developmental or welfare role of the state, the evolution of a “developmental welfare state” has become less likely in Ireland in the course of crisis management. Another lesson is that the state can manage certain bad assets of the private sector in a way that yields a profit to the public. There are other costs of the crisis management, however, which are to be paid by the people and result in a decrease of state ownership and a shrinking of the welfare systems.

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In the present paper we analyse the state of facts of robbing of a grave in German folk laws. We pay special regard to the issue to what extent the impacts of Roman law and the Church and primarily German customary law can be demonstrated in the system of state of facts and sanctions of specific laws. This investigation requires the analysis of the legal source base as well as some examination in the history of language, which allows a comparative analysis of the issue and helps to highlight the various layers of the norms of German folk laws by the example of this state of facts.

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Since the development of young companies with a good growth potential can also be expected to boost economic growth, reduce unemployment and enhance competitiveness, economic policy makers consider it a matter of prime importance that the venture capital industry provide appropriate capital supply for their development. Many countries implement central programmes to promote the venture capital financing of the development of enterprises that would have no access to venture capital on a purely market basis. The experience in Hungary is that state intervention in the venture capital industry mainly has political reasons, it uses budgetary sources sparingly and it is isolated from the private sector. But for its almost complete inefficiency, state activity would have softened the conditions of competition, crowded out the private sector and given preferential treatment to the political clientele. Realizing the abortive nature of its intervention, the state made no effort to identify the causes of failure and the role of supply and demand factors, respectively, hindering the venture capital supply of the small and medium-size enterprise (SME) sector. The intervention practice chosen by the state most recently is contrary to the practice of the European Union in several respects — a circumstance dooming government measures to boost the venture capital industry to failure again.

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Abstract  

The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in building materials applied in the State of Kuwait were measured in order to asses the radiological hazard from that source. The samples of raw materials: soil, sand, gypsum and cement as well as different kinds of concrete or bricks were analyzed by -ray spectrometry with a HPGe detector. The radium equivalent activity concentrations in the samples varied between 4.2 to 283 Bq kg–1. This value is generally significantly lower than the value of 370 Bq kg–1 which corresponds to an annual external radiation dose inside dwellings equal to 1.5 mSv. The hazard from external -radiation of building materials has been found to be comparable to that from external -fields of primordial radionuclides in the surface soil of Kuwait.

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Abstract  

This article reports for first time the state of science and technology in the African Continent on the basis of two scientometric indicators — number of research publications and number of patents awarded. Our analysis shows that Africa produced 68,945 publications over the 2000–2004 period or 1.8% of the World’s publications. In comparison India produced 2.4% and Latin America 3.5% of the World’s research. More detailed analysis reveals that research in Africa is concentrated in just two countries — South Africa and Egypt. These two counties produce just above 50% of the Continent’s publications and the top eight countries produce above 80% of the Continent’s research. Disciplinary analysis reveals that few African countries have the minimum number of scientists required for the functioning of a scientific discipline. Examination of the Continent’s inventive profile, as manifested in patents, indicates that Africa produces less than one thousand of the world’s inventions. Furthermore 88% of the Continent’s inventive activity is concentrated in South Africa. The article recommends that the African Governments should pay particular attention in developing their national research systems.

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Abstract  

The State of So Paulo plays an important role in national research activities. The Foundation for the Support of Research of So Paulo State (FAPESP) is commissioned to manage funds for these activities. The profile of Brazilian sciences is investigated and contrasted to FAPESP's investments. ISI date relative to years 1981 to 1995 are analysed through multivariate methods (Factor and Cluster Analysis) as to provide weighted ranks of research fields, relationships among them as geometric distances, and group classification. This information is compared to public reports on FAPESP's expenditures. Brazilian scientific production grows at 244 papers/year in the period, and its global share is almost doubled. Impact shows no trend. Best performers are from exact and biological sciences. Though impact varies greatly among research fields, their major distinctive feature is magnitude of production. The six top research fields identified (Physics, Biology & Biochemistry, Clinical Medicine, Engineering, Chemistry, Plant & Animal Sciences) were found to equally be the prime beneficiaries FAPESP's investments. The Brazilian scenario is one of increasing production under an international pattern. This trend is not accompanied by changes in impact. As a corollary, volume of publications rises as an important issue. Public investments from So Paulo State adequately conform this scenario giving reassurance that resouces are not being squandered.

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The aim of this paper is to build the stated preference method into the social discount rate methodology. The first part of the paper presents the results of a survey about stated time preferences through pair-choice decision situations for various topics and time horizons. It is assumed that stated time preferences differ from calculated time preferences and that the extent of stated rates depends on the time period, and on how much respondents are financially and emotionally involved in the transactions. A significant question remains: how can the gap between the calculation and the results of surveys be resolved, and how can the real time preferences of individuals be interpreted using a social time preference rate. The second part of the paper estimates the social time preference rate for Hungary using the results of the survey, while paying special attention to the pure time preference component. The results suggest that the current method of calculation of the pure time preference rate does not reflect the real attitudes of individuals towards future generations.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Attila Kovács, Lajos Döbrőssy, András Budai, Imre Boncz, and Ágnes Cornides

A citológiai vizsgálatra alapozott szűrővizsgálat – elméletileg – a méhnyak rák teljes eradikációját ígéri: számos országban jelentősen csökkent a méhnyakrák miatti betegségteher. Magyarországon a komplex nőgyógyászati vizsgálatot és kolposzkópiát alkalmazó szűrővizsgálatnak vannak nagy hagyományai, a több évtizedes erőfeszítések azonban nem tükröződnek a halálozásai mutatókban: évente mintegy 500 asszony hal meg méhnyakrák következtében. A magyarországi protokoll a hagyományos „nőgyógyászati szűrés” és a korszerű szervezett szűrővizsgálat közötti kompromisszum: a nőgyógyászati vizsgálat elengedhetetlen eleme a citológiai vizsgálat. A Nemzeti Népegészségügyi Program megteremtette a szervezett szűrés szakmai és szervezeti feltételeit. A 2003 végén megindult személyes meghíváson alapuló szűrőprogram kezdeti tapasztalatai kedvezőtlenek, mert a lakossági részvétel alacsony. Az asszonyok többsége a hagyományos módon, a szervezett szűrőprogramon kívül él a szűréssel, más része pedig figyelmen kívül hagyja a meghívást, és nem fogadja el a felkínált szűrővizsgálatot. A helyzet javítására – a nemzetközi ajánlások figyelembevételével – kísérletek folynak az alapellátás szerepének növelésére. Szükség van a jelenlegi finanszírozási szerződések felülvizsgálatát elősegítő egészségpolitikai döntésekre. Javítani kell a szűrővizsgálatok elérhetőségét és hozzáférhetőségét. Szükség van szakmai szemléletváltásra és hathatósabb lakossági kommunikációra is.

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