This study deals with the use of the Holy Crown of Hungary in Hungarian revolts and Habsburg representation between 1604 and 1611. It describes how the meaning of the crown suddenly changed after 1604 and how this meaning was spread across the borders of Hungary. The focus is on the use of the crown in the propaganda of King Matthias II at the time of his crowning as King of Bohemia in 1611. This is a rare example of the use of the Hungarian crown in the political legitimation of a ruler in another country outside Hungary, but it has a special ideological background. This use is an aspect of the history of the crown that has been overlooked to this day.
The ancient constitution of Hungary consisted of the mutually recognised rights and obligations of two actors: the Crown and the nobility. The reformers aimed at creating a Hungarian civil society through legislation. Conversion meant the replacement of the constitution, based on rights, by another system, based on statute laws. The April Laws broke the back of the old social order based on hereditary right and laid the foundation of the new Hungary.
In the exhibition “Legacy of King Matthias. Late Renaissance art in Hungary (16–17th c.)” held in 2008 there were four thematically identical paintings – the “Nation's Tableaux” displayed side by side. Until now, four pictures of the kind showing the Holy Crown and the coats of arms of the provinces of the country were known: one in the Hungarian National Museum, one in the Szombathely Gallery, and two in the collection of the Trencsén (Trenčín) Museum (dating from 1673–76 and around 1800). The article describes a fifth specimen kept in the Dominican primary school in Kőszeg. Its inscription, deviating somewhat from that of the other four pictures, follows the fate of the Hungarian crown up to 1784. The client who commissioned it must have belonged to the opposition of Joseph II's policies.
The effect of age and gender on chemical element contents in intact crowns of permanent teeth of 84 apparently healthy 15–55 year
old women (n = 38) and men (n = 46) was investigated. Mass fractions of Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, and Sr in crowns were determined by instrumental neutron
activation analysis using short-lived radionuclides. Mean values (M ± SΕΜ) for female and male combined were (on dry weight
basis): 350 ± 5 g/kg, 2920 ± 150 mg/kg, 839 ± 80 mg/kg, 4880 ± 240 mg/kg, 3.20 ± 0.30 mg/kg, 6240 ± 140 mg/kg, 181 ± 4 g/kg,
and 293 ± 24 mg/kg respectively. A statistically significant decrease of Sr (P ≤ 0.01) and increase of Na (P ≤ 0.01) content in the tooth crowns with age was found for women. Sex-related comparison did not show any differences.
Authors:Petro Hasiuk, Anna Vorobets, Nataliya Hasiuk, Svitlana Rosolovska, Irina Bodnarchuk, and Volodymyr Radchuk
Measuring the size of molars crowns
These measurements were made according to the method proposed by Zubov [ 2 ] with the help of a 0.02-mm precision calliper. Mesio-distal size of thecrowns was measured between the most
Emergence of a scientific need for museum display. Emergence of the political need for museum display. Siting and visibility of the Hungarian crown jewels. Invisibility and visible theology of the regalia. Treasure turned work of art. Profanation of relics. Profanation of crown jewels. The Schatzkammer in Vienna. The membership of the holy crown and the holy crown. Musealization of the crown. “Re-sacralization”of the crown. Present-day status of the crown. Sacrality and museality
Authors:R. Gatrone, M. Dietz, C. Mitchell, J. Stevens, and S. Hoffman-Glass
Incorporation into a 20-crown-6 of a bulky substituent capable of impeding cation/anion access to one face of the crown ether cavity is shown to afford compounds exhibiting good extraction selectivity for potassium ion over both alkaline earth cations (Ca2+, Sr2+) and other alkali metal ions (Na+, Cs+), an apparent result of diminished flexibility of the crown ether cavity, inhibition of the formation of extractable sandwich complexes with large cations, and the destabilizing effect of forcing charge-neutralizing counter anions to approach from one face of the crown cavity.
NMR, IR and MS were used for identification of major products of radiolysis of benzo-15-crown-5 in chloroform. The crown ether exhibits high affinity towards inorganic products of radiolysis of chloroform resulting in the formation of complexes.
The so-called holy crown of Hungary has been one of the most important elements in early modern Hungarian political thought, which resulted in countless images from medieval till modern times. This article treats the connection between the various crown images and descriptions of the exterior of the crown and the change of the political meaning of the crown between 1572 and 1665. Using a constructivist method of research, an attempt is made to answer the question of how the crown was depicted in art, what was the function and meaning of this depiction, how this image and function of the crown changed, and how this change can be explained. The focus of the author is on the political developments around 1608 in Hungary, in which the crown, its meaning and image played a dominant role. The function of the crown changed between 1572 and 1608 from a symbol of legitimacy of royal Habsburg power to that of the political claims of the estates of the Kingdom of Hungary. This can be observed in the work of István Illésházy, Elias Berger, János Jessenius, Lucas Kilian, Wolfgang Kilian, Péter Révay, Christoph Lackner, Márton Schödel, Hieronymus Ortelius and others. The change of use, image and meaning of the crown can be explained by the “visual turn”, which according to Peter Burke occurred in the beginning of the 17th century. The attention of historians of that period was drawn to artefacts and images of the past which were used as sources of political legitimacy and incorporated in political thought. The change of the image and meaning of the crown in Hungary was thus a part of a European development in the history of art and political thought.
The extraction of Sr from nitric acid solutions by the crown ethers, 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, 18-crown-6 and DB 18-crown-6 dissolved in chloroform has been investigated. Sr is reasonably well extracted by 18-crown-6 compared to other crown ethers from different nitric acid solutions. The extraction is strongly dependent on the concentration of HNO3 and nitrate salts. Preliminary studies indicate that137Cs is also extracted to a limited extent by 18-crown-6 from nitrate medium. Stripping of Sr was achieved by an aqueous solution of low acidity, the crown ether being regenerated for subsequent extraction.