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Abstract

The Vienna Hours, illuminated by the artist known as the “Master of Mary of Burgundy”, was originally commissioned by Margaret of York. The later parts of the manuscript commemorate the love and marriage between Mary of Burgundy and Maximilian of Habsburg, and their (newborn or expected) child.

The miniatures and texts in question convey the same idea expressed on several occasions by the official historian, Jean Molinet: in the Burgundian court, the duchess was venerated as the Virgin Mary (and in consequence of this, Maximilian – and Philip – came to be revered as the Saviour, and Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, as the Father). Underlying the tendency to identify Mary of Burgundy with the Virgin Mary was the situation of Burgundy and its heiress, which was understood by means of salvation-historical analogies. In the book of hours, the figures of the two Marys are conflated several times in a variety of ways (fols. 14v, 19v, 43v, 94v, 99v). The hymn in praise of the heavenly joys of the Virgin Mary, which is organically related to the frontispiece image, is thus (also) a chanted sequence for the eternal beatitude of the young bride. The painter conjured up the imaginary figure of Maximilian in the foreground of the two miniatures with window scenes, while the jewels in the border around the image of the Crucifixion scene allude to Margaret of York. These miniatures have a playful tone (as evidenced by the role-swapping between the Marys, the book-within-a-book, picture-within-a-picture, vision-within-a-vision, trompe l’oeil solutions, and the complex dialogue between objects, materials and locations).

There are a number of factors supporting the argument that the miniatures, hitherto attributed to the Master of Mary of Burgundy, were illuminated by Hugo van der Goes, who was a resident of the Red Cloister at the time, and that he was commissioned by the Austrian Archduke. The date of 1478 is rendered likely by stylistic and biographical factors (the paintings Hugo made in the cloister, both before and after, his later illness, the visit of Maximilian, the birth of Philip the Handsome). It was also at this time that Jean Molinet wrote Le Chappellet des dames, which makes multiple comparisons between the duchess and the Virgin Mary, and whose imagery is often echoed in the folios of the Vienna Hours. It is possible that the first (co-)owner of the manuscript was Maximilian of Habsburg.

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The “Three Magi stove” in the Royal Palace of Buda . The study describes “ The Three Magi stove” built in the royal palace in Buda. It was named after the topic of the stove tiles: the Magi riding on horses one by one at the bottom (only the rich Swiss find material implies it) and the scene of the Annunciation on two tiles. The Magi greeting the Child can separately be found on the upper part of the stove (only a single tile has been preserved and a fragment of another one), together with Maria sitting with the Child (fragment). The tiles of Apostle St Mathias and a royal figure could be found above them. The characteristic technical novelty of the stove was the use of white tin glaze and also blue tin glaze on certain tiles, while the tin glaze was yellow and green on the rest of the tiles. According to two preserved coat-of-arms, those of Bavaria-Pfalz and Württemberg, we suppose that the stove was ordered by a Bavarian prince from a master from Switzerland or Bavaria.

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Summary

Present article discusses a hitherto unknown painting by the Flemish-Venetian Paolo Fiammingo, which has recently surfaced in a Hungarian private collection. Following Mason Rinaldi's monographic study, Paolo Fiammingo has been esteemed as an original representative of Venetian late mannerism, who played an outstanding role in the dissemination of autonomous landscape in Italy. The newly discovered painting has a version in the Art Gallery and Museum, Glasgow, dated to around 1590. Its subject matter has been erroneously cited in the literature as The Annunciation to Joachim and Anne. In fact, the two pictures render a theme, The Doubt of Joseph, of which no other representation in Venetian cinquecento has come down to us. Actually, it was Zsuzsa Urbach who published a fundamental article about the emergence of this subject matter around 1400. In the Budapest version Joseph's figure is more emphatic as compared to the landscape, while in the exemplar in Scotland the landscape gets a major role. The difference between the two versions shows the painter's double attachment to the Flemish and Italian traditions. The composition may have been influenced by an engraving of Raphael Sadeler invented by Marten de Vos.

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Summary

The chapel of the Franciscan Church of Our Lady of the Annunciation in Bratislava (Pozsony, Pressburg) was finished probably in autumn or at the end of the year 1709. In January 1710 there was a festive mass celebrated by the Esztergom Archbishop in the presence of the Palatine Prince Paul Esterházy, the Convent's guardian Ludovicus Kirkay and the noblemen who took part in the Hungarian Diet. Until recently, out of the known archive sources, only one donator of the Bratislava Loretto Chapel was concretely known – the already mentioned Palatine Paul Esterházy. However, last year an unknown source was identified, enlightening the background of the foundation of this sight. It is the Heraldic Codex from 1710 with an artistic design of extraordinary quality. The Codex, with 67 full-page paintings of coats of arms, originated in Bratislava on the initiative of the guardian of a Franciscan Convent, Ludovicus Kirkay. Its form reminds of the materials of religious fraternities. Loretto chapels were commonly founded by lay fraternity or as a devotional chapel after a plaque. This text tries to answer the question if there was such a religious organisation here and what the original intention of the project initiators was.

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Quellen und Bilder: Fragen zu Maulbertschs Werken in Szombathely

Sources and paintings. Questions concerning the works by Maulbertsch in Szombathely

Acta Historiae Artium Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author:
Anna Jávor

Abstract

The study follows the traces of the late works by Maulbertsch commissioned by Bishop János Szily of Szombathely. The four pantings sent from Vienna in 1784 – among them a copy after Van Dyck, and others after Rubens and Jordaens respectively decorated the guest rooms of the Bishop's Palace. Only the Charity after Van Dyck can be identified by old inventories. After the death of Szily the „Mother's charity”, held to be a work by Maulbertsch, was not sold, and was disappeared from the place only after 1952. The three sketches for the frescoes of the Cathedral were purchased by Szily in 1798 from Maulbertsch's widow, they served as models for the execution of the frescoes for Josef Winderhalder the Younger between 1799–1801 and for Anton Spreng in 1807. The accompanying letter by the father-in-law Maulbertsch's, Jakob Schmutzer proves, that the Annunciation was repeated for the artist's confessor (its photo was published by K. Garas in 1971), and in the sketch for the Nativity of the Virgin (now: Prague, National Gallery) there was also Gideon, whose detail sketch is in the Budapest Museum of the Fine Arts. The altar sketches may come from the family to different ecclesiastical and public collections (Pannonhalma, Vienna, Szombathely). It seems that a renewed lecture of sources and the finding of new ones is necessary for identifying the works by Maulbertsch and among them variations and replicas by his own hand.

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Maulbertsch öröksége és a szombathelyi székesegyház mennyezetképei 1. Winterhalder mint Maulbertsch legjobb tanítványa – a szentély Angyali Üdvözlet-kompozíciója

The Legacy of Maulbertsch and the Ceiling Frescoes of Szombathely Cathedral 1. Winterhalder as Maulbertsch's Best Pupil – The Annunciation Composition of the Chancel

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
János Jernyei Kiss

Abstract

The author devotes a series of articles to the iconographic and pictorial specificities of the perished ceiling frescoes of Szombathely cathedral. The frescoes were painted on the basis of Franz Anton Maulbertsch's sketches after his unexpected death by Joseph Winterhalder jr. and after the latter's death, by Anton Spreng between 1798 and 1808. Each of the three great frescoes has a different relationship with Maulbertsch's sketches and his concept of ceiling decoration, and in the course of the execution of the work Winterhalder, “the best pupil of Maulbertsch” also changed his attitude to the ongoing work.

The present paper introduces the first piece of the cycle, the Annunciation in the chancel. After Maulbertsch's death Bishop János Szily asked Maulbertsch's father-in-law the engraver Jakob Schmutzer to find a competent fresco painter. He recommended Winterhalder, reporting in enthusiastic terms about the striking resemblance of his style with Maulbertsch's. As the sources reveal, the client did not want to find a Maulbertsch imitator at first and would have respected the artistic originality of the new painter. He was not aware that Winterhalder's successes as a fresco painter were largely due to his ability to reproduce and vary the formal and compositional solutions learnt from his master. After arriving in Szombathely, the painter assured the bishop to continue the original concept of Maulbertsch and not to work after own invention.

When Winterhalder began decorating the chancel ceiling, he had a lot of work ahead on the basis of the bozzetto he received. It was exceptionally rare that Maulbertsch elaborated a detailed design corresponding exactly with the final composition. Usually he only determined the foci of the composition and the protagonists, adding the details ad lib on the ceiling, drawing them in free hand with the brush. Having learnt this method working in Maulbertsch's workship, experienced Winterhalder seems to not have been perplexed by the job of filling the huge vault with a rich composition whereas the sketch only contained the chief motifs. Apart from the bozzetto, another source of the Maulbertschian motifs was a work in Moravia, the central ceiling fresco in the nave of the church of Dyje (Mühlfraun). Winterhalder, too, had been involved in the execution of the fresco and – just like in many other places – he probably made ricordi of Maulbertsch's composition and figural groups, which he must have found appropriate to be used in Szombathely as well. The figure of the adoring angel leaning over a cloud or Saint Michael sitting in contrapposto are exact borrowings from Dyje, and the basic concept of the composition also derives from there. The female figures of the Old Testament in the window zone are also based on another Maulbertsch work, the figures of the Carmelite church in Székesfehérvár.

Winterhalder also relied on his own imagination. It is to the credit of his inventiveness that he turned a biblical scene of meagre external features into a dramatic scene filling a whole vault. On the basis of the Tridentine representations of the Annunciation, he fully exploited the possibilities of the theological metaphors with a huge host of angels, an array of different symbols to enrich the iconographic arsenal of the scene. The foundation for this was Winterhalder's great theological culture and ability to invent symbols, which are obvious in other works of his as well.

Thus, in the first phase of the commisson – the decoration of the ceiling of the chancel – Winterhalder apparently acted as the talented pupil of Maulbertsch in confirmation of his fame. He eminently rehearsed what he had learnt about the elaboration of a sketch and the incorporation of pictorial panels. He dazzled his client – like so many times earlier – by creating a “real” Maulbertsch work. The next phase of the work – the decoration of the central dome – was a more taxing task confronting the painter with a new challenge.

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Ismétlődések, hiányok és buktatók. A kisszebeni Keresztelő Szent János tiszteletére szentelt főoltár külső képsorának értelmezése

Repetitions, Hiatuses and Hitches. Interpretation of the Row of Images on the Outer Side of the Wings of the High Altar dedicated to Saint John The Baptist in Kisszeben

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Györgyi Poszler

Abstract

Art historians are still at fault for the interpretation of the pictures on the outer sides of the wings of the high altar of Saint John the Baptist from Kisszeben (Sabinov). Restoring work in the past decades has explored the original surface of several pictures, leading to an important insight: the reconstruction of the altarpiece in the baroque age left their contents unchanged. It can therefore be concluded that the baroque layer on the unrestored pic tures cannot hide wholly different scenes. What hinders interpretation is rather the deviation from the customary schemes. The narrative compiled from Biblical scenes is “jerky”: the episodes in some places do not follow in chronological order and while several “customary” scenes are missing seemingly without reason, certain scenes appear, however, to be repeated. Even more perplexing are the “hitches”, representations that are hard to interpret on the basis of traditional schemes, which, however, hide the key to the profound message of the high altar with an adequetely strict composition.

The first scene traditionally taken in the literature for The Miraculous catch of Fishes Christ walking on water is actually the appearance of God the Father, and in the second panel Christ's Transfiguration is shown. The two constitute a pair. With an unmistakable gesture the Creator points at Christ who assumed divine glory in the episode of the Transfiguration during his earthly life as well: “This is my beloved Son …hear ye him!”

The next pictures depict seven episodes from Jesus's human life: the Annunciation, Nativity, Ecce Homo, Crucifixion, Christ in Limbo, Resurrection and Ascension. The sequence is followed by the Holy Trinity in the company of music-making angels. Christ seems to have just returned to the Father occupying his due place on the throne after having completed his earthly life. In the next picture of the Deesis he appears as the chief Judge sent by the Father. The lily at the height of his mouth symbolizes celestial judgment, the sword stands for the earthly power of judgment over the resurrected, the living and the dead.

The pair of the Holy Trinity and the Last Judgment returns once more in the last two panels of the sequence. Christ enthroned under the celestial tent and the Father flank the Mother of God. The dove of the Holy Spirit is hovering above them with extended wings. In the lower strip kneeling figures with hands clutched in payer are turning towards them. The scene follows right after the second depiction alluding to the Last Judgment in which the graves burst open to the trumpet call of the angels announcing the resurrection. It is the reward of the just resurrected just people that they receive eternal life in heaven shown in the next panel.

The second, lower, picture of the left-hand moveable wing has a large church as the most accented motif above which in the middle the dove of the Holy Ghost is fluttering. The figures in the garden represent different degrees of religious absorbtion. A child is heading for the house of God with determined steps, the rest are watching him. This scene might as well symbolize divine filiation. The servants of the Law become the children of God who earn the right to eternal life in heaven on Doomsday but whose adoption as the children of God is effected by the Holy Spirit during baptism. People convert upon the influence of the Holy Spirit and hurry to the church. The church building symbolizes in this connection the Church of Christ.

In the next scene, Christ wearing a snow-white mantle in reference to the Lamb of God is surrounded by followers of all ranks and file who are no aliens or strangers any more thanks to Christ's sacrifice on the cross but the “fellows of the saints and the household of God”. The presentation of their group is thus another visualization of the Church of Christ, as was the church building in the previous scene. Next to Christ the Virgin and St John the Evangelist can be seen with St Peter behind them. They are the supporting pillars of the Church. The rest of the people are not characterized as individuals but as social groups, secular and ecclesiastic dignitaries. The young princess on the left holds St Catherine of Alexandria's attribute. On the right, the encumbents of secular and ecclesiastic power, a pope and a king are predominant. In the background on the right the attire of a young man resembles that of a cardinal while a bishop figure rises above the head of St Peter. The kerchieved women and bare-headed men represent the middle and lower classes. The arrangement of the people around Christ is another visualization of the community of the Church of Christ, its cornerstone being the Vir dolorum.

In the next picture a priest with a youthful face puts his right hand on the head of a praying youth. The black vestment and the gesture are symbolic: the picture shows the administration of the sacrament of penance. The men standing withdrawn to the background are witnesses. The hoary old man is holding a crooked stick and rosary in his left hand, the younger one is reading from a book. The wrinkled forehead, grey hair and beard are attributes of asceticism. The stick is an emblem of hermits and pilgrims, as are the rosary and the book. In the Middle Ages hermits and pilgrims were the paragons of counselling on matters of faith. The male figures of the Kisszeben altarpiece may even directly refer to St Antony the Hermit and St John the Evangelist. Reference to the virtues they represent directs the believers' attention to possible ways of absolution.

The contemplation of the workday-side of the altarpiece, the reading of the depictions from left to right guides one to the recognition of the basic message of the series: it is the illustration of the Apostles' Creed in sixteen episodes, proceeding doctrine by doctrine. It is unique and unprecedented in the art of Hungarian altarpieces, or for that matter in a broader geographical context, too. Further research into the patterns used for the individual scenes must go on to discover the model used for the entire cycle. Certain elements of the sequence are tied with several threads to the paintings feastday-side and are not independent of the themes of the superstructure, either. The full iconographic program, which certainly harmonized with the wish of the commissioner, will be known when all these implications have been clarified. The next great task is therefore to find the donator and the author of the program of the Kisszeben altarpiece.

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fifth-century mosaics in the southern aisle of the Basilica of the Annunciation in Nazareth. 65 It was likewise reported to have been used on the later sixth-century upper pavement in the apse of the South Chapel at Kafr Kama. 66 The same pattern recurs

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