In this paper, we analyze the real economic convergence process in the 28 countries of theEuropeanUnion (EU-28). The analyzed period is 2004–2018; therefore, the United Kingdom is included in
The improvement of Hungarian competitiveness is determined by its linkages to the concerning European developments and strategies. The first part of the study - starting from the competitiveness concept of the Scientific School - contains definitions and issues that will be used in the analysis. The European Union as an integration of national economies brings into the competitiveness analyses numerous new, additional elements that do not emerge on member-state level. The study introduces a model in order to describe and valuate the competitiveness of the EU considering the above-mentioned additional elements. Important feature of the model is the analysis of the single European market: this points to the issue that improving the competitiveness of a member state in itself is not sufficient, the coordinated development of regions and member states is required. The polarisation, the lack of a single strategy can impede the improvement of competitiveness even if certain parts achieve success. Strategy for a better European competitiveness must include advantages emerging from the competition of regions and member states, but also possibilities offered by the effective coordination of member states of the European single market. The second part of the study points to some important practical issues concerning competitiveness of the European Union, and on this base some conclusions regarding methodology and economic policy will be drawn as well.
Cappelen, A. — Castellacci, F. — Fagerberg, J. — Verspagen, B. (2003): The Impact of EU Regional Support on Growth and Convergence in theEuropeanUnion. Journal of Common Market Studies , 41: 621–644.
manufacturing) and digital services for products.
This study aims to establish a link between the productivity of the vehicle manufacturing industry in theEuropeanUnion and the degree of digitalization-robotization. The study will examine the
required information about the products on offer, while costs were presented in a misleading way. 2 TheEuropeanUnion, while acknowledging the pitfalls of these problematic consumer markets, seems largely unwilling to deviate from its inflexible standard
of this function can be carried out by analyzing the dialogue between the Court of Justice of theEuropeanUnion [CJEU] and national courts, based on the interpretative dilemmas surrounding Article 4 (2) of the Treaty on theEuropeanUnion [TEU