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Humanism and Theology in Renaissance Florence

Four Examples (Caroli, Savonarola, Ficino, and Pico)

Verbum
Author:
Amos Edelheit

The argument in this article is that we should not make clear-cut distinctions between humanism and philosophy or theology, and between the humanists and their contemporary scholastic theologians and philosophers, in the Florentine context of the second half of the fifteenth century. The relations between these two groups were complicated and included, beyond obvious differences, also mutual influences, not always discussed in detail among modern scholars. Starting from the known controversy between Eugenio Garin and Paul Oskar Kristeller regarding the nature of the humanist movement and its relations with philosophy, I then move-on to present four examples: the first two deal with "scholastic" theologians and preachers, the Dominicans Giovanni Caroli and Girolamo Savonarola, in whom I emphasize the humanist bias; the last two deal with humanist philosophers, Marsilio Ficino and Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, in whom I emphasize the importance of religion and theology for the understanding of their philosophy.

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A szerző röviden ismerteti a Selye-féle stresszelmélet alapjait, az akut és a krónikus stressz azonos és eltérő sajátosságait. Hangsúlyozza, hogy a környezet fogalmába nemcsak a külső környezet, hanem a belső környezet (betegségállapotok) és a pszichomentális állapot is beletartozik. Ismerteti a legfontosabb epigenetikai fogalmakat: a környezet és a gének közti kölcsönhatást, a neuroendokrin rendszer szerepét, a génaktiváció, géninaktiváció mechanizmusát, a fenotípusplaszticitás, az epigenetikai reprograming fogalmát. Taglalja a betegségállapotok és a fenotípusok epigenetikai kapcsolatát, annak klinikai jelentőségét. Hangsúlyozza a pszichomentális állapot szomatikus állapotra gyakorolt befolyásoló szerepét, valamint ennek potenciális jelentőségét a klinikai gyakorlatban. Ismerteti a világméretű cardiovascularis morbiditás növekedése és a krónikus, civilizációs stressz közti összefüggést, tárgyalja a mai terápiás gyakorlat érvrendszerét és kritikáját. Megállapítja, hogy az akadémiai tudomány és a hittudomány közti ellentét feloldódik az epigenetikai ismeretek birtokában. Orv. Hetil., 2012, 153, 525–530.

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Der Artikel geht der Frage der Glaubensvermittlung angesichts fremd gewordener Milieus nach. Er beschreibt eine theologische Vorentscheidung, die durch die Interpretation der modernen Welt geschieht, aus der sich divergierende Handlungsimpulse ergeben. Daran anschließend greift er einen Gedanken von Klaus Hemmerle auf, der die Glaubensvermittlung unter einem dreifachen Vorrang beschreibt. Es wird gezeigt, warum eine Auseinandersetzung mit unterschiedlichen Milieus für die Selbstevangelisation der Kirche notwendig ist.

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Until now thee Nestorian theology has been known in Greek, only from indirect hostile, sources. In the Arabic literature, however, there are known works that deal the Nestonian theology in its entirety and, in addition, in Nestorian spirit. The examination of the often occurring term maˁanā in Arabic Nestorian texts indicates that these Arabic texts are based on a thorough knowledge of Aristotle’s philosophy, so this term must be taken in various passages in various meanings, but its most important equivalent is ousia.

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Christian churches both Catholic and Protestant experienced a renewal of their theology and a revival of their impact on society in the interwar period; and they could count on the continuous good will of the conservative Horthy regime. Convinced that the leading role of Jewish intellectuals in the 1918-1919 revolutionary upheaval resulted the near ruin of the traditional society and amidst the shock caused by the collapse of historical Hungary, some leading members of Protestant churches endorsed various forms of political anti-Semitism, including the acceptance of some type of curtailment of religious equality, which had once been acclaimed as a significant achievement of nineteenth-century Protestant liberalism. While maintaining their sympathy for the Horthy regime till the very last, the leaders of the churches opposed the persecution and deportation of Hungarian Jews, which began escalating after March 1944. This paper will discuss some of the possible contexts of the Reformed Church's public statements concerning the Holocaust after 1945 and will focus mainly on the writings and sermons of the leading figure of the Reformed Church Bishop László Ravasz (1882-1975).

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Both demonology and medical learning wanted to define what material proofs they were to use in order to alleviate the politically rooted disease symptoms of the early modern period. Finding the proper therapeutic treatment required the appropriate description of the pathology, revealing the causes and consequences and making the right diagnosis. Several key questions were formulated concerning these requirements. Most of the questions formulated in this way are based on a formal syllogism that meets the normative requirements of disciplines that include law, theology and medicine and whose formal elements became valid within the systems of fulfilment of these disciplines themselves. In this paper I shall attempt to introduce the scholarly literature based on these formal logical criteria that address material proofs, omens, prophecies, oracles and miracles. I shall then outline how this debate in European secondary literature has been received in Hungarian scholarship.

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Aleas of history and frontiers of modernity

László Ravasz (1882–1975) and the interwar catholic-protestant rapprochement in Hungary

Hungarian Studies
Author:
Pál Hatos

Liberal academics and enthusiastic lay audiences hailed the public debuts of the Calvinist theologian and acclaimed orator László Ravasz as the leading representative of a new generation of modernist clergymen in the early 1910s. Much to the regret of his liberal critics, in the wake of the collapse of historic Hungary following World War I his message stemmed from a modern cult and culture of defeat and was in no way a continuation of the old school liberals of the belle époque of the Dual Monarchy. In his memoires, which were written during the 1960s, Ravasz described his erstwhile political views as “fetishes,” but defended his theological motives. This raises questions concerning a central problem of modern religious experience: how can one map the constantly evolving frontiers between rampant secularization and the no less permanent and certainly insatiable nostalgia for the sacred order of things in modern societies? By redefining what is religious, the currents of Protestant and Catholic thought in interwar Hungary presented in the following article established intellectual contexts on both sides that make not only the historical description of Christian identity but also the very notion of modernity a function of multi-layered readings. At the same time, the Catholic and Protestant rapprochement may be interpreted as a symptom of the decline of religious explanations of the world and history, because they testify to the fact that the dialectics of historical interpretation are no longer defined by the particular approaches of Catholic or Protestant theology or the differences between the two, but rather by the state of competition between universalist utopias and religious world explanations forced into the conservative camp, which necessarily bleaches the emphatic elements of Christian teachings as well.

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In this article, the author provides a close analysis  the most famous Eucharistic hymn written by St. Aquinas, Adoro Te devote, in the light of passages from the Summa Theologiae which treat the Holy Eucharist. In looking at Fra Angelico's La Crocefissione, which contains one of the renowned portraits of St. Thomas, the author finds similarities with the hymn.

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In his poetic collection, Tibullus often refers to the ancient household gods Lares. In this paper we will show that the prominent position Tibullus reserves for the Lares in his elegies proves that the poet agrees with Augustus’ programme of political and moral renovatio. Also we will point out how traditional worship in Augustan Rome is revived in order to serve both the religious and the political objectives of the Princeps.

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