manufacturing of recombinant therapeuticproteins offers several advantages over batch processing: improved and consistent product quality, reduced equipment size, streamlined processes, low process cycle times, reduced capital and operating cost, increased
Authors:Barbara Bellich, Massimiliano Borgogna, Damiano Carnio, and Attilio Cesàro
Alginate has been established as a very versatile material in the preparation of hydrogel capsules for trapping therapeutic
biomolecules and cells. The physico-chemical properties, the mechanism and the processing of gel formation are now well established.
In the frame of a project aiming at the exploitation of encapsulation of therapeutic proteins in alginate gel particles, the
procedure of preparation, characterization, gel-drying and re-hydrating has been explored for the shelf-life of the encapsulated
biomolecules. Here, the results of a calorimetric study on the freezing and dehydration process of alginate micro-capsules
is presented. The work aims at the description of water state(s) and its removal under “controlled conditions” in the presence
of bioprotectant sugars.
Cell derived extracellular vesicles are submicron structures surrounded by phospholipid bilayer and released by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The sizes of these vesicles roughly fall into the size ranges of microbes, and they represent efficient delivery platforms targeting complex molecular information to professional antigen presenting cells. Critical roles of these naturally formulated units of information have been described in many physiological and pathological processes. Extracellular vesicles are not only potential biomarkers and possible pathogenic factors in numerous diseases, but they are also considered as emerging therapeutic targets and therapeutic vehicles. Strikingly, current drug delivery systems, designed to convey therapeutic proteins and peptides (such as liposomes), show many similarities to extracellular vesicles. Here we review some aspects of therapeutic implementation of natural, cell-derived extracellular vesicles in human diseases. Exploration of molecular and functional details of extracellular vesicle release and action may provide important lessons for the design of future drug delivery systems.