Authors:V. Kapcsándi, A.J. Kovács, M. Neményi, and E. Lakatos
The aim of our experiments was to demonstrate the non-thermal effect of microwave treatment on Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation activity. A method was developed for studying the effects of various treatments in the course of must fermentation. The raw material (must) was treated in different ways: (i) heat transfer; (ii) microwave treatment; (iii) inoculation with yeast, and (iv) their combinations. The results of the treatments were compared with respect to alcohol concentration, sugar content, and acidity. The results proved that sugar content of the treated samples rapidly decreased compared to the control sample, and fermentation time was 40% shorter in the fastest case. These results can be explained by the yeast inoculation and microwave treatment. Due to non-thermal effects, fermentation capacity increased by about 30%, while the energy consumption decreased.
A simple analytical method is suggested for determination of the starting temperature of the thermal effect. The method is based on the utilization of the kinetic characteristics of the transformation under investigation.
This paper presents a thermal comfort study of a popular playground in Szeged, Hungary in order to find its optimal land cover and vegetation options. For this assessment simulated micro- and bioclimatological conditions recorded on a typical summer day (12th July 2011) were analysed. The thermal and radiation features of the study area were quantified by two biometeorological indices, Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and Mean Radiant Temperature (Tmrt). For the simulation of the meteorological parameters and the bioclimate indices, ENVI-met microclimate model was used. The results confirmed that the modelled areas with different land cover provide a variety of thermal conditions for the visitors; moreover, human thermal sensation was significantly affected by the change of the radiation environment.
In this research, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and gas chromatography is used to determine the wax content of fourteen
crude oils of different sources. Different empirical equations were applied to compare the wax content of crude oils. For
the fourteen crude oil samples with the wax content ranging from 7.5 to 43.8 mass%, it was observed that the results of empirical
equations were in good agreement with those determined by DSC and GC. Accordingly, a correlation between ASTM pour point and
the temperature at which 2 mass% of wax has precipitated out from crude oil is developed.
Preparations were characterized by specific surface area, thermogravimetry, and X-ray diffractometry. Thermal effects observed were (a) sulfur loss, (b) sintering, (c) crystallization and transformation of the crystalline phase(s). Thermoanalytical curves indicate that decomposition of the sulfate occurs in two distinct steps. Decrease of surface area due to (b) and (c) is concomitant to decomposition of sulfate. Sulfate was found to hinder sintering, crystallization and phase transformations of ZrO2 and TiO2. In low-titania and -zirconia sulfated TiO2-ZrO2 the minor component enhances the effect of sulfate. In equimolar TiO2-ZrO2 sulfate decomposition is accompanied by rapid formation of crystalline TiZrO4.
Authors:Alécio R. Nunes, Aline O. Moura, and Alexandre G. S. Prado
includes the equilibrium constant, and ∑ Δ R H is the integral enthalpy of adsorption (J g −1 ) obtained from the net thermaleffect of adsorption and the number of moles of the adsorbate. Based on the Langmuir equation, it is possible to calculate the
Authors:Alina Wojakowska, Stanisława Plińska, and E. Krzyżak
A solid-state phase transition in cobalt dibromide at 647 K has been revealed by three different alternative current techniques.
A small thermal effect of (181±18) J mol−1 corresponding to the enthalpy of the transition has been determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The effect was
observed on cooling and on heating as well.
A nonlinear algorithm has been suggested to increase the accuracy of evaluating the activation energy by the integral isoconversional method. A minor modification of the algorithm has made it possible to adapt the isoconversional method for an arbitrary variation of the temperature. This advanced isoconversional method allows for trustworthy estimates of the activation energy when the thermal effect of a reaction makes the temperature of a sample deviate from a prescribed heating program.
We studied the Y–Ba–Cu–O/Ag equilibrium diagram in oxygen atmosphere around the composition YBa2Cu3Ox/Ag35 mass%. We found a high thermal effect: the peritectic decomposition temperature of Y-123 phase is lowered from 1040
to 940C. We demonstrate here that the nature of the phenomenon is not chemical. We explained it as the result of a mechanical
segregation of Y-123 decomposition products from Y-123 phase, performed by silver.
Authors:I. Pelly, E. Dieguez, B. Watts, and B. Wanklyn
DTA runs and flux growth experiments have shown that the crystallization temperatures of WO3 from NaF flux are in the range of 1020–1090°C. Addition of Pb2+ influences the crystal growth and the crystallization temperatures are altered (within this range). A thermal effect giving
rise to an exothermal DTA peak was observed above the crystallization temperature. This peak occurs at a higher temperature
when lead ions are present. We propose an explanation based on pre-crystallization clustering and on the number of nucleation
sites on the surface of the platinum crucible.